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Smithsonian / USGS Weekly Volcanic Activity Report

You are currently viewing Archived reports for the week of 11 February-17 February 2015.


















 Activity for the week of 11 February-17 February 2015

The Weekly Volcanic Activity Report is a cooperative project between the Smithsonian's Global Volcanism Program and the US Geological Survey's Volcano Hazards Program. Updated by 2300 UTC every Wednesday, notices of volcanic activity posted on these pages are preliminary and subject to change as events are studied in more detail. This is not a comprehensive list of all of Earth's volcanoes erupting during the week, but rather a summary of activity at volcanoes that meet criteria discussed in detail in the "Criteria and Disclaimers" section. Carefully reviewed, detailed reports on various volcanoes are published monthly in the Bulletin of the Global Volcanism Network.

Name Location Activity
Chikurachki Paramushir Island (Russia) New
Colima Mexico New
Fuego Guatemala New
Karymsky Eastern Kamchatka (Russia) New
Klyuchevskoy Central Kamchatka (Russia) New
Pacaya Guatemala New
Piton de la Fournaise Reunion Island (France) New
Soputan Sulawesi (Indonesia) New
Villarrica Chile New

Aira Kyushu (Japan) Ongoing
Asosan Kyushu (Japan) Ongoing
Bardarbunga Iceland Ongoing
Chirpoi Kuril Islands (Russia) Ongoing
Dukono Halmahera (Indonesia) Ongoing
Kilauea Hawaiian Islands (USA) Ongoing
Kuchinoerabujima Ryukyu Islands (Japan) Ongoing
Popocatepetl Mexico Ongoing
Sheveluch Central Kamchatka (Russia) Ongoing
Shishaldin Fox Islands (USA) Ongoing
Sinabung Indonesia Ongoing
Suwanosejima Ryukyu Islands (Japan) Ongoing
Zhupanovsky Eastern Kamchatka (Russia) Ongoing


New Activity / Unrest


Volcano index photo  Chikurachki  | Paramushir Island (Russia)  | 50.324°N, 155.461°E  | Elevation 1781 m

According to KVERT, the Tokyo VAAC stated that an eruption at Chikurachki began at 1000 on 16 February. A Support to Aviation Control Service (SACS) notice described a large amount of aerosol near the Northern Kuriles Islands at 1322 that same day. Satellite images detected ash plumes that rose to altitudes of 7-7.5 km (23,000-24,600 ft) a.s.l. and drifted 80 km W. The Aviation Color Code was raised to Orange. At 0641, 1328, and 1635 on 17 February satellite images showed ash plumes rising to altitudes of 3-3.5 km (10,000-11,500 ft) a.s.l. and drifting 95-230 km SW.

Source: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT)



Volcano index photo  Colima  | Mexico  | 19.514°N, 103.62°W  | Elevation 3850 m

Based on satellite images, the Washington VAAC reported that on 11 February continued discrete emissions from Colima drifted NE and dissipated after 55 km. On 14 February a small eruption recorded by the webcam produced gas emissions with a low ash content that rose to an altitude of 4.9 km (16,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted NNE.

In a 17 February bulletin, the Unidad Estatal de Protección Civil reported that Colima remained active, although there continued to be a slight decrease in the number and size of lava-block avalanches. Lava flows minimally advanced. Explosions continued but also decreased in intensity, producing ash plumes that rose 2-3 km above the crater. The lava dome had been partially destroyed, forming a carter about 140 m in diameter. Residents were warned not go within 5 km of the volcano.

Sources: Washington Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC), Unidad Estatal de Protección Civil de Colima



Volcano index photo  Fuego  | Guatemala  | 14.473°N, 90.88°W  | Elevation 3763 m

On 12 February INSIVUMEH reported that explosions from Fuego produced water vapor, gas, and ash plumes that rose 350-800 m above the crater and drifted E and S, and at times NW, drifting as high as 1.7 km. During 12-14 February explosions generated ash plumes that rose 800 m and drifted 10-11 km E and SE. Incandescent material was ejected 100-150 m above the crater, causing avalanches in the Trinidad (S) drainage. During 15-16 February block avalanches descended the Cenizas (SSW), Trinidad, and Las Lajas (SE) drainages. Ashfall was reported in Panimache (8 km SW), Sangre de Cristo (8 km WSW), San Pedro Yepocapa (8 km NW). In a special report on 16 February INSIVUMEH noted 4-6 explosions per hour, and ash plumes that rose, based on pilot reports, to altitudes of 7-9.1 km (23,000-30,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted more than 15 km SW and W. Another special report issued on 17 February stated that 4-6 explosions per hour continued to be detected. Large amounts of ash formed mushroom-shaped clouds that rose 0.6-1.1 km above the crater and drifted over 15 km NW, W, SE, and S. Incandescent material was ejected 150 m above the crater, causing avalanches in the Trinidad, Ceniza, Las Lajas, and Santa Teresa drainages.

Source: Instituto Nacional de Sismologia, Vulcanologia, Meteorologia, e Hidrologia (INSIVUMEH)



Volcano index photo  Karymsky  | Eastern Kamchatka (Russia)  | 54.049°N, 159.443°E  | Elevation 1513 m

KVERT reported that during 6-13 February a moderate explosive eruption at Karymsky continued. Satellite images showed a thermal anomaly over the volcano on 6 February; weather prevented views of the volcano on the other days. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange.

Source: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT)



Volcano index photo  Klyuchevskoy  | Central Kamchatka (Russia)  | 56.056°N, 160.642°E  | Elevation 4754 m

KVERT reported that during 6-13 February a Strombolian and Vulcanian eruption at Klyuchevskoy continued. Incandescence at the summit was visible and bombs were ejected 200-300 m above the crater. Explosions generated ash plumes that rose to altitudes of 5.5-6.5 km (18,000-21,300 ft) a.s.l.; ashfall was reported in Kozyrevsk Village (50 km W) on 7 February and Klyuchi Village (30 km NNE) on 11 February. A lava flow effused onto the E flank. Satellite images showed a daily, big, bright thermal anomaly over the volcano, and ash plumes drifting about 400 km mainly NW and N at altitudes of 5.5-6.5 km (18,000-21,300 ft) a.s.l.

On 15 February at 1035 the webcam recorded ash plumes rising to altitudes of 6-6.5 km (19,700-21,300 ft) a.s.l. and drifting 74 km E. At 1211, 1347, and 1524 ash plumes rose to an altitude of 8 km (26,200 ft) a.s.l. and drifted 110-232 km E and ESE. The Aviation Color Code was raised to Red. At 1656 ash plumes rose to altitudes of 7.5-7.8 km (24,600-25,600 ft) a.s.l. and drifted 232 km ESE. The Aviation Color Code was lowered to Orange. At 1512 on 16 February ash plumes identified in satellite images rose to an altitude of 6 km (19,700 ft) a.s.l. and drifted 270 km S. The next day, at 0641, 1503, and 1505, ash plumes rose to an altitude of 5.5 km (18,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted 114-240 km SE.

Source: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT)



Volcano index photo  Pacaya  | Guatemala  | 14.382°N, 90.601°W  | Elevation 2569 m

INSIVUMEH reported that during 12-13 February a series of weak explosions from Pacaya's Mackenney Crater generated dark gray ash plumes that rose 500-700 m above the crater and, along with fumarolic plumes, drifted 1.5 km S. During 14-15 February weak explosions continued to generate ash plumes; ash and fumarolic plumes drifted 800 m SE. The next day fumarolic and ash plumes drifted S and SW at a low altitude. During 16-17 February fumarolic plumes with small amounts of ash rose 100 m and drifted E.

Source: Instituto Nacional de Sismologia, Vulcanologia, Meteorologia, e Hidrologia (INSIVUMEH)



Volcano index photo  Piton de la Fournaise  | Reunion Island (France)  | 21.244°S, 55.708°E  | Elevation 2632 m

OVPDLF reported that during 11-13 February visibility of the eruption at Piton de la Fournaise that began on 4 February from vents located 100 m outside and to the W of Bory Crater was hampered by poor weather conditions; tremor remained elevated. Tremor began to decrease at 1700 on 15 February, intensely fluctuated, and then disappeared around 2230. Incandescence visible with a webcam likely indicated draining lava tubes.

Source: Observatoire Volcanologique du Piton de la Fournaise (OVPF)



Volcano index photo  Soputan  | Sulawesi (Indonesia)  | 1.112°N, 124.737°E  | Elevation 1785 m

Based on information from PVMBG and weather models, the Darwin VAAC reported that during 11-12 February an eruption at Soputan generated ash plumes that rose to an altitude of 3.7 km (12,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted almost 30 km SE. Ash was not identified in satellite images due to darkness and meteorological clouds.

Source: Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC)



Volcano index photo  Villarrica  | Chile  | 39.42°S, 71.93°W  | Elevation 2847 m

OVDAS-SERNAGEOMIN reported that activity significantly increased at Villarrica during 1-16 February, characterized by increased seismicity, crater incandescence, and explosions. On 6 February seismicity increased significantly, explosions occurred in the crater, and ash emissions rose above the crater rim. The Alert Level was raised to Yellow (the second lowest level on a four-color scale). DOAS (Differential Optical Absorption Spectrometry) data showed an average monthly sulfur dioxide emission value of 222 tons per day; a high value during this period of 450 tons per day was recorded on 11 February. The highest number of explosions, five per minute, during the period occurred on 16 February. Explosions ejected incandescent material out of the crater as far as 1 km onto the S flank. During an overflight on 16 February, supported by ONEMI, volcanologists observed the lava lake and recorded temperatures near 800 degrees Celsius, tephra in and around the active crater, and a diffuse layer of ash on the flanks.

Source: Servicio Nacional de Geología y Minería (SERNAGEOMIN)



Ongoing Activity


Volcano index photo  Aira  | Kyushu (Japan)  | 31.593°N, 130.657°E  | Elevation 1117 m

JMA reported that 36 explosions from Showa Crater at Aira Caldera’s Sakurajima volcano ejected tephra as far as 1,300 m during 9-13 February. Incandescence from the crater was visible at night during 9-11 February, and inflation continued to be detected. The Alert Level remained at 3 (on a scale of 1-5). The Tokyo VAAC reported that during 11-17 February plumes rose to altitudes of 1.8-3.7 km (6,000-12,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted E and SE. On 17 February pilots observed ash plumes that rose to an altitude of 2.4 km (8,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted SE

Sources: Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA), Tokyo Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)



Volcano index photo  Asosan  | Kyushu (Japan)  | 32.884°N, 131.104°E  | Elevation 1592 m

JMA reported that, based on seismicity and infrasound data, the eruption from Asosan’s Nakadake Crater that began on 25 November 2014 continued intermittently during 9-13 February. Incandescent material was sometimes ejected onto the crater rim, and plumes rose 600 m above the crater. High-amplitude tremor continued. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-5).

Source: Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA)



Volcano index photo  Bardarbunga  | Iceland  | 64.633°N, 17.516°W  | Elevation 2000 m

During 11-17 February, IMO maintained Aviation Colour Code Orange due to continued activity at Bárdarbunga’s Holuhraun eruptive fissure; the overall activity was persistent, but lower compared to recent weeks and months. Seismicity remained strong. Local air pollution from gas emissions persisted and GPS measurements showed that subsidence continued. The lava field covered 85 square kilometers on 14 February; measurements from 4 and 12 February showed almost no changes in the extent of the field.

Source: Icelandic Met Office (IMO)



Volcano index photo  Chirpoi  | Kuril Islands (Russia)  | 46.532°N, 150.871°E  | Elevation 742 m

SVERT reported that satellite images over Snow, a volcano of Chirpoi, showed a thermal anomaly on 9 and 11 February. Cloud cover obscured views during 10 and 12-16 February. The Aviation Color Code remained at Yellow.

Source: Sakhalin Volcanic Eruption Response Team (SVERT)



Volcano index photo  Dukono  | Halmahera (Indonesia)  | 1.693°N, 127.894°E  | Elevation 1229 m

Based on analyses of satellite imagery and wind data, the Darwin VAAC reported that during 11 February ash plumes from Dukono rose to an altitude of 3.7 km (12,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted over 35 km S.

Source: Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC)



Volcano index photo  Kilauea  | Hawaiian Islands (USA)  | 19.421°N, 155.287°W  | Elevation 1222 m

During 11-17 February HVO reported that Kilauea’s 27 June NE-trending lava flow continued to be active with several small breakouts across the interior and edges of the lobes, upslope of the leading front. Small brush fires from the breakouts were noted about 3 km NE of Pu'u 'O'o Crater and in an area W of the Kaohe Homesteads. The most northern lobe of lava remained about 500 m above Highway 130, near police and fire stations. At Pu'u 'O'o Crater, glow emanated from several outgassing openings in the crater floor. The circulating lava lake occasionally rose and fell in the deep pit within Halema'uma'u Crater. Gas emissions remained elevated. The plume from the vent continued to deposit variable amounts of tephra onto nearby areas.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)



Volcano index photo  Kuchinoerabujima  | Ryukyu Islands (Japan)  | 30.443°N, 130.217°E  | Elevation 657 m

JMA reported that no eruptions occurred from Kuchinoerabujima during 9-16 February although the level of activity remained elevated. White plumes rose 400-700 m above the crater. Low-level seismicity continued and tremor was absent. Scientists aboard an overflight on 10 February observed a new crater with high-temperature areas on the NE part, new fissures, and white steam emissions. The Alert Level remained at 3 (on a scale of 1-5).

Source: Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA)



Volcano index photo  Popocatepetl  | Mexico  | 19.023°N, 98.622°W  | Elevation 5393 m

CENAPRED reported that during 10-11 and 11-12 February the seismic network at Popocatépetl recorded 146 and 101 low-intensity events, respectively, accompanied by steam-and-gas emissions that sometimes contained minor amounts of ash. Explosions were also detected, likely from lava-dome growth. On 11 February ashfall was reported in Puebla (~50 km to the E) and in the municipalities of Juan C. Bonilla, Domingo Arenas, Huejotzingo (27 km NE), and at the airport to the E. Intermittent nighttime incandescence from the crater was visible during 11-12 February.

During 13-17 February seismicity indicated ongoing emissions, and incandescence from the crater was noted. A series of explosions between 0650 and 1200 on 15 February generated plumes that rose 1.8 km above the crater and drifted NE. Ash fell in Huejotzingo, Domingo Arenas, Salvador el Verde (30 km NNE), San Felipe Teotlalcingo (26 km NNE) , and Puebla. Explosions continued to be detected; nine were registered during 16-17 February. The Alert Level remained at Yellow, Phase Two.

Source: Centro Nacional de Prevencion de Desastres (CENAPRED)



Volcano index photo  Sheveluch  | Central Kamchatka (Russia)  | 56.653°N, 161.36°E  | Elevation 3283 m

KVERT reported that during 6-13 February lava-dome extrusion onto Sheveluch’s N flank was accompanied by incandescence, hot block avalanches, and fumarolic activity. A strong explosion on 8 February generated ash plumes that rose to altitudes of 9-10 km (29,500-32,800 ft) a.s.l. and drifted 180 km NW. A thermal anomaly over the dome was detected daily. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange.

Source: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT)



Volcano index photo  Shishaldin  | Fox Islands (USA)  | 54.756°N, 163.97°W  | Elevation 2857 m

AVO reported that seismicity at Shishaldin continued to be elevated over background levels during 11-17 February. Elevated surface temperatures were observed in satellite images on most days, and minor steam emissions were recorded by the web cam on 11 February. Low-level eruptive activity confined to the summit crater likely continued. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange and the Volcano Alert Level remained at Watch.

Source: US Geological Survey Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO)



Volcano index photo  Sinabung  | Indonesia  | 3.17°N, 98.392°E  | Elevation 2460 m

Based on satellite images and weather models, the Darwin VAAC reported that during 11-12 February ash plumes from Sinabung rose to an altitude of 3 km (10,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted over 30 km SE.

Source: Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC)



Volcano index photo  Suwanosejima  | Ryukyu Islands (Japan)  | 29.638°N, 129.714°E  | Elevation 796 m

Based on JMA notices, the Tokyo VAAC reported that during 11-12 and 14-15 February ash plumes from Suwanosejima rose to altitudes of 1.8-2.1 km (6,000-7,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted E.

Source: Tokyo Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)



Volcano index photo  Zhupanovsky  | Eastern Kamchatka (Russia)  | 53.589°N, 159.15°E  | Elevation 2899 m

KVERT reported that a moderate explosive eruption at Zhupanovsky continued during 6-13 February. Satellite images detected a daily thermal anomaly over the volcano. Ash clouds rose to an altitude of 3 km (10,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted about 65 km W on 6 and 9 February. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange.

Source: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT)



Weekly Reports Archive

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Chiginagak Karthala Oraefajokull Tangkoko-Duasudara
Chikurachki Karymsky Osorno Tangkubanparahu
Chiles-Cerro Negro Kasatochi Pacaya Tara, Batu
Chillan, Nevados de Katla Pagan Telica
Chirinkotan Kavachi Palena Volcanic Group Tenerife
Chirpoi Kelimutu Paluweh Tengger Caldera
Cleveland Kelut Panarea Three Sisters
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Concepcion Kharimkotan Pavlof Tokachidake
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Dabbahu Kizimen Popocatepetl Turrialba
Dempo Klyuchevskoy Puyehue-Cordon Caulle Ubinas
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Dieng Volcanic Complex Korovin Ranakah Unknown Source
Dukono Koryaksky Raoul Island Unnamed
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Fernandina Lengai, Ol Doinyo Ruiz, Nevado del Zubair Group
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 News Feeds and Google Placemarks


The RSS (Really Simple Syndication) feed is identical to the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report minus some features including the header information (latitude and longitude and summit elevation), the Geologic Summary, and a link to the volcano's page from the Global Volcanism Program. Each volcano report includes a link from the volcano's name back to the more complete information in the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report on the Smithsonian website.




The CAP (Common Alerting Protocol) feeds are XML files specifically formatted for disaster management. They are similar in content to the RSS feed, but contain no active links.




A Google Earth network link for the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report can be loaded into the free Google Earth software, and in turn will load placemarks for volcanoes in the current weekly report. Placemark balloons include the volcano name, report date, report text, sources, and links back to the GVP volcano page for that volcano and to the complete Weekly Report for that week.

 Criteria & Disclaimers

Criteria

The Weekly Volcanic Activity Report does not necessarily include all volcanic activity that occurred on Earth during the week. More than a dozen volcanoes globally have displayed more-or-less continuous eruptive activity for decades or longer, and such routine activity is typically not reported here. Moreover, Earth's sea-floor volcanism is seldom reported even though in theory it represents the single most prolific source of erupted material. The Weekly Volcanic Activity Report summarizes volcanic activity that meets one or more of the following criteria:

- A volcano observatory raises or lowers the alert level at the volcano.
- A volcanic ash advisory has been released by a volcanic ash advisory center (VAAC) stating that an ash cloud has been produced from the volcano.
- A verifiable news report of new activity or a change in activity at the volcano has been issued.
- Observers have reported a significant change in volcanic activity. Such activity can include, but is not restricted to, pyroclastic flows, lahars, lava flows, dome collapse, or increased unrest.

Volcanoes are included in the "New Activity/Unrest" section of the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report if the activity occurs after at least 3 months of quiescence. Once a volcano is included in the "New Activity/Unrest" section, updates will remain in that section unless the activity continues for more than 1 month without escalating, after which time updates will be listed in the "Continuing Activity" section. Volcanoes are also included in the "New Activity/Unrest" section if the volcano is undergoing a period of relatively high unrest, or increasing unrest. This is commonly equal to Alert Level Orange on a scale of Green, Yellow, Orange, Red, where Red is the highest alert. Or alert level 3 on a scale of 1-4 or 1-5.

It is important to note that volcanic activity meeting one or more of these criteria may occur during the week, but may not be included in the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report because we did not receive a report.


Disclaimers

1. The Weekly Volcanic Activity Report is intended to provide timely information about global volcanism on a weekly basis. Consequently, the report is generated rapidly by summarizing volcanic reports from various sources, with little time for fact checking. The accuracy of the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report is dependent upon the quality of the volcanic activity reports we receive. Reports published in the Bulletin of the Global Volcanism Network are monthly, and more carefully reviewed, although all of the volcanoes discussed in the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report are not necessarily reported in the Bulletin. Because of our emphasis on rapid reporting on the web we have avoided diacritical marks. Reports are updated on the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report web page as they are received, therefore information may be included regarding events that occurred before the current report period.

2. Rapidly developing events lead to coverage that is often fragmentary. Volcanoes, their eruptions, and their plumes and associated atmospheric effects are complex phenomena that may require months to years of data analysis in order to create a comprehensive summary and interpretation of events.

3. Preliminary accounts sometimes contain exaggerations and "false alarms," and accordingly, this report may include some events ultimately found to be erroneous or misleading.

4. Many news agencies do not archive the articles they post on the Internet, and therefore the links to some sources may not be active. To obtain information about the cited articles that are no longer available on the Internet contact the source.

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Information presented on this website is considered public information and may be distributed or copied. Use of appropriate byline/photo/image credit is requested. We strongly recommend that USGS data be acquired directly from a USGS server and not through other sources that may change the data in some way. While USGS makes every effort to provide accurate and complete information, various data such as names, telephone numbers, etc. may change prior to updating. USGS welcomes suggestions on how to improve our home page and correct errors. USGS provides no warranty, expressed or implied, as to the accuracy, reliability or completeness of furnished data.

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RSS and CAP Feeds

An RSS (Really Simple Syndication) feed for the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report first made available on 5 March 2008 can be utilized with the aid of various free downloadable readers. The report content of the news feed is identical to the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report minus some features including the header information (latitude and longitude and summit elevation), the Geologic Summary, and a link to the volcano's page from the Global Volcanism Program. Each volcano report includes a link from the volcano's name back to the more complete information in the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report on the Smithsonian website. On 12 March 2009, GeoRSS tags were added so that the latitude and longitude for each volcano could be included with the feed.

At the end of each individual report is a list of the sources used. We would like to emphasize that the World Organization of Volcano Observatories (WOVO) website (http://www.wovo.org/) lists the regional volcano observatories that have the most authoritative data for many of these events.

CAP (Common Alerting Protocol) feeds are XML files specifically formatted for disaster management.


Google Earth Placemarks

A Google Earth network link for the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report was first made available on 1 April 2009. This file can be loaded into the free Google Earth software, and in turn will load placemarks for volcanoes in the current weekly report. Placemark balloons include the volcano name, report date, report text, sources, and links back to the GVP volcano page for that volcano and to the complete Weekly Report for that week.

 Acronyms and Abbreviations

a.s.l. - above sea level

AVO - Alaska Volcano Observatory

AVHRR - Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer

CENAPRED - Centro Nacionale de Prevencion de Desastres (México)

CONRED - Coordinadora Nacional para la Reducción de Desastres

COSPEC - Correlation Spectrometer

CVGHM (formerly VSI) - Center of Volcanology and Geological Hazard Mitigation

CVO - Cascades Volcano Observatory (USGS)

GMS - Geostationary Meteorological Satellite

GOES - Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite

GVO - Goma Volcano Observatory

GVP - Global Volcanism Program (Smithsonian Institution)

HVO - Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (USGS)

ICE - Instituto Costarricense de Electricidad (Costa Rica)

IG - Instituto Geofísico (Ecuador)

IGNS - Institute of Geological and Nuclear Sciences (New Zealand) - now GNS Science

INETER - Instituto Nicaragüense de Estudios Territoriales (Nicaragua)

INGEMMET - Instituto Geológical Minero y Metalúrgico (Peru)

INGEOMINAS - Instituto Colombiano de Geología y Minería (Colombia)

INGV-CT - Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia - Sezione di Catania (Italy)

INSIVUMEH - Instituto Nacional de Sismologia, Vulcanologia, Meteorologia e Hidrologia (Guatemala)

IRD - Institut de Recherche pour le Développement (France)

JMA - Japanese Meteorological Agency

KEMSD - Kamchatkan Experimental and Methodical Seismilogical Department

KVERT - Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team

M - magnitude

METEOSAT - Meteorological Satellite

MEVO - Mount Erebus Volcano Observatory

MODIS - Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer

MVO - Montserrat Volcano Observatory

MWO - Meteorological Watch Office

NEIC - National Earthquake Information Center

NIED - National Research Institute for Earth Science and Disaster Prevention (Japan)

NOAA - National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration

NOTAM - Notice to Airmen

OVDAS - Observatorio Volcanologico de los Andes del Sur (Chile)

OFDA - Office of US Foreign Disaster Assistance

ONEMI - Oficina Nacional de Emergencia - Ministerio del Interior (Chile)

OVPDLF - Observatoire Volcanologique du Piton de la Fournaise (France)

OVSICORI-UNA - Observatorio Vulcanologico y Sismologico de Costa Rica, Universidad Nacional (Costa Rica)

PHIVOLCS - Philippine Institute of Volcanology and Seismology (Philippines)

RSAM - Real-time Seismic Amplitude Measurement

RVO - Rabaul Volcano Observatory

SERNAGEOMIN - Servicio Nacional de Geologia y Mineria (Chile)

SIGMET - Significant Meteorological Information

SNET - Servicio Nacional de Estudios Territoriales (El Salvador)

SVERT - Sakhalin Volcanic Eruption Response Team (Russia)

USAID - US Agency for International Development

USGS - United States Geological Survey

UTC - Coordinated Universal Time

VAAC - Volcanic Ash Advisory Center

VAFTAD - Volcanic Ash Forecast Transport And Dispersion

VDAP - Volcano Disaster Assistance Program (USGS)

VHP - Volcano Hazards Program (USGS)

VRC - Volcano Research Center (Japan)