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Smithsonian / USGS Weekly Volcanic Activity Report

You are currently viewing Archived reports for the week of 1 July-7 July 2015.


















 Activity for the week of 1 July-7 July 2015

The Weekly Volcanic Activity Report is a cooperative project between the Smithsonian's Global Volcanism Program and the US Geological Survey's Volcano Hazards Program. Updated by 2300 UTC every Wednesday, notices of volcanic activity posted on these pages are preliminary and subject to change as events are studied in more detail. This is not a comprehensive list of all of Earth's volcanoes erupting during the week, but rather a summary of activity at volcanoes that meet criteria discussed in detail in the "Criteria and Disclaimers" section. Carefully reviewed, detailed reports on various volcanoes are published monthly in the Bulletin of the Global Volcanism Network.

Name Location Activity
Fuego Guatemala New
Hakoneyama Honshu (Japan) New
Raung Eastern Java (Indonesia) New
Sangeang Api Indonesia New
Sirung Pantar Island (Indonesia) New

Aira Kyushu (Japan) Ongoing
Batu Tara Komba Island (Indonesia) Ongoing
Concepcion Nicaragua Ongoing
Dukono Halmahera (Indonesia) Ongoing
Karymsky Eastern Kamchatka (Russia) Ongoing
Kilauea Hawaiian Islands (USA) Ongoing
Manam Papua New Guinea Ongoing
Ontakesan Honshu (Japan) Ongoing
Popocatepetl Mexico Ongoing
Reventador Ecuador Ongoing
Santa Maria Guatemala Ongoing
Sheveluch Central Kamchatka (Russia) Ongoing
Shishaldin Fox Islands (USA) Ongoing
Sinabung Indonesia Ongoing
Soputan Sulawesi (Indonesia) Ongoing
Tungurahua Ecuador Ongoing
Ubinas Peru Ongoing
Zhupanovsky Eastern Kamchatka (Russia) Ongoing


New Activity / Unrest


Volcano index photo  Fuego  | Guatemala  | 14.473°N, 90.88°W  | Elevation 3763 m

Based on INSIVUMEH notices, CONRED reported that for a 30-hour period during 30 June-1 July activity at Fuego was at a high level, characterized by explosions, high-temperature pyroclastic flows (that began on 1 July), and ashfall. Ash plumes rose 4.8 km above the crater and drifted 25 km W and NW, producing ashfall in 22 local communities. The majority of material deposited by pyroclastic flows was in the Las Lajas drainage. Activity decreased later that day. During 4-6 July, INSIVUMEH reported that explosions produced ash plumes that rose as high as 800 m above the crater and drifted 8-10 km SW and W. Incandescent material was ejected 100 m high, and avalanches descended the Santa Teresa and other nearby drainages.

Source: Instituto Nacional de Sismologia, Vulcanologia, Meteorologia, e Hidrologia (INSIVUMEH)



Volcano index photo  Hakoneyama  | Honshu (Japan)  | 35.233°N, 139.021°E  | Elevation 1438 m

According to a news article a drone that surveyed the Owakudani hot spring district at Hakoneyama recorded damage to three hot spring supply facilities; an exclusion zone for visitors was in effect due to increased seismic activity and an Alert Level raise to 2 (on a 5-level scale) on 6 May. At 1230 on 30 June a small-scale eruption occurred and the Alert Level was raised to 3. On 1 July a news article noted another small-scale eruption (occurring between 0400 and 0500), and JMA reported that ash deposits were visible with the webcam. During fieldwork on 2 July, scientists confirmed new fumaroles at Owakudani that were vigorously emitting white plumes; the new fumaroles had formed during 29-30 June. White fumarolic plumes continued to be emitted through 5 July.

Sources: Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA), The Japan Times, The Japan Times



Volcano index photo  Raung  | Eastern Java (Indonesia)  | 8.119°S, 114.056°E  | Elevation 3260 m

Based on notices from the Ujung Padang MWO and PVMBG, satellite images, and pilot observations, the Darwin VAAC reported that during 1 and 3-7 July ash plumes from Raung rose to altitudes of 3.7-6.1 km (12,000-20,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted 25-110 km E, ESE, and SE. According to news articles, flights in and out of an airport in Bali were cancelled due to ash emissions during 3-4 July. On 5 July BNPB reported that roaring was heard from continuous explosions and Strombolian activity at Raung. Dense white-and-gray plumes rose as high as 400 m and drifted SE. The Alert Level remained at 3 (on a scale of 1-4), and the public was reminded not to approach the crater within a 3-km radius.

Sources: Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC), Badan Nacional Penanggulangan Bencana (BNPB), WA Today



Volcano index photo  Sangeang Api  | Indonesia  | 8.2°S, 119.07°E  | Elevation 1912 m

Based on analyses of satellite imagery and wind data, the Darwin VAAC reported that on 7 July an ash plume from Sangeang Api rose to an altitude of 2.7 km (9,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted over 35 km E.

Source: Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC)



Volcano index photo  Sirung  | Pantar Island (Indonesia)  | 8.508°S, 124.13°E  | Elevation 862 m

Based on analyses of satellite imagery and wind data, the Darwin VAAC reported that on 7 July an ash plume from Sirung rose to an altitude of 1.5 km (5,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted 85 km SW.

Source: Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC)



Ongoing Activity


Volcano index photo  Aira  | Kyushu (Japan)  | 31.593°N, 130.657°E  | Elevation 1117 m

JMA reported 14 explosions during 29 June-6 July from Showa Crater at Aira Caldera’s Sakurajima volcano, some that ejected tephra as far as 1,300 m, and incandescence from the crater that was occasionally visible. The Alert Level remained at 3 (on a 5-level scale).

Source: Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA)



Volcano index photo  Batu Tara  | Komba Island (Indonesia)  | 7.791°S, 123.585°E  | Elevation 633 m

During 30 June-4 July observers at Batu Tara noted Strombolian eruptions of varying intensity at intervals ranging between 10 and 50 minutes. Three pyroclastic flows traveled as far as 200 m over the sea during a 16-hour period of elevated activity between 2 and 3 July.

Source: Volcano Discovery



Volcano index photo  Concepcion  | Nicaragua  | 11.538°N, 85.622°W  | Elevation 1700 m

INETER reported that gas explosions continued to be detected at Concepción; by 7 July a total of 2,417 explosions, 117 since 30 June, had been detected by the network since activity increased (date not specified).

Source: Instituto Nicaragüense de Estudios Territoriales (INETER)



Volcano index photo  Dukono  | Halmahera (Indonesia)  | 1.693°N, 127.894°E  | Elevation 1229 m

PVMBG reported that during May-June white-and-gray plumes rose as high as 1.2 km above Dukono's Malupang Warirang Crater rim and were accompanied by rumbling and roaring. A powerful explosion on 23 May was followed by minor ashfall in areas to the E. During 1-5 July white-and-gray plumes rose as high as 600 m; minor ashfall was reported in northern areas on 1 July. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-4). Residents and tourists were advised not to approach the crater within a radius of 2 km.

Based on analyses of satellite imagery and wind data, the Darwin VAAC reported that during 31 June-3 July ash plumes rose to an altitude of 2.1 km (7,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted 25-165 km NE. On 7 July ash plumes rose to an altitude of 1.8 km (6,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted 45 km NE.

Sources: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG, also known as CVGHM), Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC)



Volcano index photo  Karymsky  | Eastern Kamchatka (Russia)  | 54.049°N, 159.443°E  | Elevation 1513 m

KVERT reported that explosive activity at Karymsky likely continued during 26 June-3 July; a small ash cloud above the volcano was visible in satellite images on 1 July. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange.

Source: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT)



Volcano index photo  Kilauea  | Hawaiian Islands (USA)  | 19.421°N, 155.287°W  | Elevation 1222 m

HVO reported that seismicity beneath Kilauea's summit, upper East Rift Zone, and Southwest Rift Zone was at background levels during 1-7 July. The lava lake continued to be active in the deep pit within the Overlook vent, vigorously spattering. On 1 July part of the rim and wall of Overlook crater collapsed into the lava lake, starting at about 1430, producing an ashy plume, rapid oscillation of the lava lake, and intense spattering in the lake at the impact site. The June 27th NE-trending lava flow continued to be active with surface flows within 8 km NE of Pu'u 'O'o Crater. Webcams recorded multiple incandescent outgassing vents within Pu'u 'O'o.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)



Volcano index photo  Manam  | Papua New Guinea  | 4.08°S, 145.037°E  | Elevation 1807 m

Based on observations of satellite imagery and wind data analyses, the Darwin VAAC reported that during 1-2 July ash plumes from Manam rose to altitudes of 2.4-3 km (8,000-10,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted 45-130 km E and SE.

Source: Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC)



Volcano index photo  Ontakesan  | Honshu (Japan)  | 35.893°N, 137.48°E  | Elevation 3067 m

JMA reported that activity at Ontakesan continued to decline during 26 June-3 July, although the volcano continued to be seismically active and emit white plumes to less than 1 km high. The Alert Level was lowered to 2 (on a scale of 1-5).

Source: Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA)



Volcano index photo  Popocatepetl  | Mexico  | 19.023°N, 98.622°W  | Elevation 5393 m

CENAPRED reported that during 1-7 July the seismic network at Popocatépetl recorded 18-118 daily emissions consisting of water vapor, gas, with ash seen on 7 July only; cloud cover often prevented visual observations. Gas-and-steam plumes were observed daily, and variable nighttime crater incandescence was observed. An explosion was detected at 1024 on 1 July, and 14 were detected during 5-7 July. The Alert Level remained at Yellow, Phase Two.

Source: Centro Nacional de Prevencion de Desastres (CENAPRED)



Volcano index photo  Reventador  | Ecuador  | 0.077°S, 77.656°W  | Elevation 3562 m

During 1-7 July IG reported a high level of seismic activity including explosions, tremor, long-period earthquakes, harmonic tremor, and signals indicating emissions at Reventador; cloud cover sometimes prevented visual observations. Incandescent material that traveled more than 1 km down the SE flank was visible during 1-2 and 6 July in thermal images. Ash emissions were visible on 2 July, and a steam-and-ash plume that rose 2 km and drifted SW was visible the next day. A minor ash emission rose less than 500 m and drifted W on 6 July.

Source: Instituto Geofísico-Escuela Politécnica Nacional (IG)



Volcano index photo  Santa Maria  | Guatemala  | 14.757°N, 91.552°W  | Elevation 3745 m

INSIVUMEH reported that an explosion at 0436 on 5 July from Caliente cone, part of Santa María's Santiaguito lava-dome complex, generated an ash plume that rose 500 m and drifted SW. Explosions during 5-6 July produced ash plumes that rose 800 m and drifted W, causing ashfall in the Palajunoj area. Avalanches from lava-flow fronts descended the flanks.

Source: Instituto Nacional de Sismologia, Vulcanologia, Meteorologia, e Hidrologia (INSIVUMEH)



Volcano index photo  Sheveluch  | Central Kamchatka (Russia)  | 56.653°N, 161.36°E  | Elevation 3283 m

KVERT reported that during 26 June-3 July lava-dome extrusion onto Sheveluch’s N flank was accompanied by fumarolic activity. Satellite images showed a thermal anomaly over the volcano during 25-28 and 30 June; weather clouds obscured the volcano on the other days. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange.

Source: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT)



Volcano index photo  Shishaldin  | Fox Islands (USA)  | 54.756°N, 163.97°W  | Elevation 2857 m

AVO reported that seismicity at Shishaldin continued to be elevated over background levels 1-7 July indicating that low-level eruptive activity confined to the summit crater likely continued. Although cloud cover often prevented visual observations, webcam images showed periodic steaming, and ash at the summit during 2-3 July. Elevated surface temperatures at the summit were detected in satellite images on 3 and 7 July. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange and the Volcano Alert Level remained at Watch.

Source: US Geological Survey Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO)



Volcano index photo  Sinabung  | Indonesia  | 3.17°N, 98.392°E  | Elevation 2460 m

Based on reports from PVMBG, the Darwin VAAC reported that on 1 July an ash plume rose 2 km above Sinabung’s summit crater and drifted E. The next day an ash plume rose 1.6 km above the crater.

Source: Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC)



Volcano index photo  Soputan  | Sulawesi (Indonesia)  | 1.112°N, 124.737°E  | Elevation 1785 m

PVMBG reported that during June-3 July white plumes were observed rising as high as 750 m above Soputan even though inclement weather sometimes obscured crater views. Seismicity during the previous three months had declined (specifically shallow volcanic earthquakes, volcanic earthquakes, and signals indicating emissions and avalanches) but remained higher than levels recorded prior to the elevated activity which lead to the Alert Level increase on 26 December 2014. Low-frequency harmonic tremor was occasionally detected. The Alert Level was lowered to 2 (on a scale of 1-4). Residents and tourists were advised not to approach the craters within a radius of 4 km, or 6.5 km on the WSW flank.

Source: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG, also known as CVGHM)



Volcano index photo  Tungurahua  | Ecuador  | 1.467°S, 78.442°W  | Elevation 5023 m

IG reported moderate seismic activity at Tungurahua during 31 June-7 July, characterized by long-period events, minor instances of tremor, and one explosion. Cloud cover often prevented visual observations. On 31 June a vapor plume rose 500 m and drifted NW. Small amounts of ash fell in Choglontus (13 km WSW) and El Manzano (8 km SW), and roaring was reported. A steam emission rose 300 m on 3 July, and minor ashfall was again reported in Choglontus. An explosion produced a steam-and-ash plume that rose 1 km and drifted NW. A small pyroclastic flow occurred near the crater. Ashfall was reported in Choglontus. On 6 July minor ashfall was reported in El Manzano and a small explosion was recorded at 0554. A lahar descended the Achupashal drainage causing a road closure near Pájaros-Penipe.

Source: Instituto Geofísico-Escuela Politécnica Nacional (IG)



Volcano index photo  Ubinas  | Peru  | 16.355°S, 70.903°W  | Elevation 5672 m

Instituto Geofísico del Perú (IGP) Observatorio Volcanológico del Sur (OVS) reported that during 30 June-6 July volcano-tectonic earthquakes decreased and the rate of long-period events remained steady as compared to the previous week. The number of hybrid events slightly increased. Explosions were observed, and ash emissions rose as high as 1.6 km above the crater base and drifted NE, E, and SE.

Source: Instituto Geofísico del Perú (IGP)



Volcano index photo  Zhupanovsky  | Eastern Kamchatka (Russia)  | 53.589°N, 159.15°E  | Elevation 2899 m

KVERT reported that explosive activity at Zhupanovsky probably continued during 26-3 July; weather clouds obscured views of the volcano. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange.

Source: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT)



Weekly Reports Archive

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Bogoslof Ioto Negra, Sierra Sulu Range
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Calbuco Kaba Nisyros Suwanosejima
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Campi Flegrei del Mar di Sicilia Kanaga Nyamuragira Takawangha
Cayambe Kanlaon Nyiragongo Talang
Cereme Karangetang Okataina Tambora
Chachadake [Tiatia] Karkar Okmok Tanaga
Chaiten Karthala Ontakesan Tandikat-Singgalang
Chiginagak Karymsky Oraefajokull Tangkoko-Duasudara
Chikurachki Kasatochi Osorno Tangkubanparahu
Chiles-Cerro Negro Katla Pacaya Tara, Batu
Chillan, Nevados de Kavachi Pagan Telica
Chirinkotan Kelimutu Palena Volcanic Group Tenerife
Chirpoi Kelut Paluweh Tengger Caldera
Cleveland Kerinci Panarea Three Sisters
Colima Ketoi Papandayan Tinakula
Colo Kharimkotan Parker Tofua
Concepcion Kick 'em Jenny Pavlof Tokachidake
Copahue Kikai Peuet Sague Tolbachik
Cotopaxi Kilauea Pinatubo Toliman
Cuicocha Kirishimayama Planchon-Peteroa Tongariro
Cumbal Kizimen Poas Tungurahua
Dabbahu Klyuchevskoy Popocatepetl Turrialba
Dempo Kolokol Group Puyehue-Cordon Caulle Ubinas
Descabezado Grande Korovin Rabaul Ulawun
Dieng Volcanic Complex Koryaksky Raikoke Unknown Source
Dukono Krakatau Ranakah Unnamed
Ebeko Krummel-Garbuna-Welcker Raoul Island Unnamed
Ebulobo Kuchinoerabujima Rasshua Veniaminof
Egon Kurikomayama Raung Villarrica
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Erebus Lamington Rincon de la Vieja Witori
Erta Ale Lamongan Rinjani Wolf
Etna Langila Ritter Island Yasur
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Eyjafjallajokull Lascar Ruang Zavodovski
Fernandina Lengai, Ol Doinyo Ruapehu Zhupanovsky
Fogo Leroboleng Ruiz, Nevado del Zubair Group
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Fournaise, Piton de la Lewotolo Sakar
Fourpeaked Little Sitkin Salak
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 News Feeds and Google Placemarks


The RSS (Really Simple Syndication) feed is identical to the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report minus some features including the header information (latitude and longitude and summit elevation), the Geologic Summary, and a link to the volcano's page from the Global Volcanism Program. Each volcano report includes a link from the volcano's name back to the more complete information in the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report on the Smithsonian website.




The CAP (Common Alerting Protocol) feeds are XML files specifically formatted for disaster management. They are similar in content to the RSS feed, but contain no active links.




A Google Earth network link for the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report can be loaded into the free Google Earth software, and in turn will load placemarks for volcanoes in the current weekly report. Placemark balloons include the volcano name, report date, report text, sources, and links back to the GVP volcano page for that volcano and to the complete Weekly Report for that week.

 Criteria & Disclaimers

Criteria

The Weekly Volcanic Activity Report does not necessarily include all volcanic activity that occurred on Earth during the week. More than a dozen volcanoes globally have displayed more-or-less continuous eruptive activity for decades or longer, and such routine activity is typically not reported here. Moreover, Earth's sea-floor volcanism is seldom reported even though in theory it represents the single most prolific source of erupted material. The Weekly Volcanic Activity Report summarizes volcanic activity that meets one or more of the following criteria:

- A volcano observatory raises or lowers the alert level at the volcano.
- A volcanic ash advisory has been released by a volcanic ash advisory center (VAAC) stating that an ash cloud has been produced from the volcano.
- A verifiable news report of new activity or a change in activity at the volcano has been issued.
- Observers have reported a significant change in volcanic activity. Such activity can include, but is not restricted to, pyroclastic flows, lahars, lava flows, dome collapse, or increased unrest.

Volcanoes are included in the "New Activity/Unrest" section of the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report if the activity occurs after at least 3 months of quiescence. Once a volcano is included in the "New Activity/Unrest" section, updates will remain in that section unless the activity continues for more than 1 month without escalating, after which time updates will be listed in the "Continuing Activity" section. Volcanoes are also included in the "New Activity/Unrest" section if the volcano is undergoing a period of relatively high unrest, or increasing unrest. This is commonly equal to Alert Level Orange on a scale of Green, Yellow, Orange, Red, where Red is the highest alert. Or alert level 3 on a scale of 1-4 or 1-5.

It is important to note that volcanic activity meeting one or more of these criteria may occur during the week, but may not be included in the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report because we did not receive a report.


Disclaimers

1. The Weekly Volcanic Activity Report is intended to provide timely information about global volcanism on a weekly basis. Consequently, the report is generated rapidly by summarizing volcanic reports from various sources, with little time for fact checking. The accuracy of the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report is dependent upon the quality of the volcanic activity reports we receive. Reports published in the Bulletin of the Global Volcanism Network are monthly, and more carefully reviewed, although all of the volcanoes discussed in the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report are not necessarily reported in the Bulletin. Because of our emphasis on rapid reporting on the web we have avoided diacritical marks. Reports are updated on the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report web page as they are received, therefore information may be included regarding events that occurred before the current report period.

2. Rapidly developing events lead to coverage that is often fragmentary. Volcanoes, their eruptions, and their plumes and associated atmospheric effects are complex phenomena that may require months to years of data analysis in order to create a comprehensive summary and interpretation of events.

3. Preliminary accounts sometimes contain exaggerations and "false alarms," and accordingly, this report may include some events ultimately found to be erroneous or misleading.

4. Many news agencies do not archive the articles they post on the Internet, and therefore the links to some sources may not be active. To obtain information about the cited articles that are no longer available on the Internet contact the source.

5. USGS Disclaimer Statement for this Website:

Information presented on this website is considered public information and may be distributed or copied. Use of appropriate byline/photo/image credit is requested. We strongly recommend that USGS data be acquired directly from a USGS server and not through other sources that may change the data in some way. While USGS makes every effort to provide accurate and complete information, various data such as names, telephone numbers, etc. may change prior to updating. USGS welcomes suggestions on how to improve our home page and correct errors. USGS provides no warranty, expressed or implied, as to the accuracy, reliability or completeness of furnished data.

Some of the documents on this server may contain live references (or pointers) to information created and maintained by other organizations. Please note that USGS does not control and cannot guarantee the relevance, timeliness, or accuracy of these outside materials.

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RSS and CAP Feeds

An RSS (Really Simple Syndication) feed for the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report first made available on 5 March 2008 can be utilized with the aid of various free downloadable readers. The report content of the news feed is identical to the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report minus some features including the header information (latitude and longitude and summit elevation), the Geologic Summary, and a link to the volcano's page from the Global Volcanism Program. Each volcano report includes a link from the volcano's name back to the more complete information in the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report on the Smithsonian website. On 12 March 2009, GeoRSS tags were added so that the latitude and longitude for each volcano could be included with the feed.

At the end of each individual report is a list of the sources used. We would like to emphasize that the World Organization of Volcano Observatories (WOVO) website (http://www.wovo.org/) lists the regional volcano observatories that have the most authoritative data for many of these events.

CAP (Common Alerting Protocol) feeds are XML files specifically formatted for disaster management.


Google Earth Placemarks

A Google Earth network link for the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report was first made available on 1 April 2009. This file can be loaded into the free Google Earth software, and in turn will load placemarks for volcanoes in the current weekly report. Placemark balloons include the volcano name, report date, report text, sources, and links back to the GVP volcano page for that volcano and to the complete Weekly Report for that week.

 Acronyms and Abbreviations

a.s.l. - above sea level

AVO - Alaska Volcano Observatory

AVHRR - Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer

CENAPRED - Centro Nacionale de Prevencion de Desastres (México)

CONRED - Coordinadora Nacional para la Reducción de Desastres

COSPEC - Correlation Spectrometer

CVGHM (formerly VSI) - Center of Volcanology and Geological Hazard Mitigation

CVO - Cascades Volcano Observatory (USGS)

GMS - Geostationary Meteorological Satellite

GOES - Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite

GVO - Goma Volcano Observatory

GVP - Global Volcanism Program (Smithsonian Institution)

HVO - Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (USGS)

ICE - Instituto Costarricense de Electricidad (Costa Rica)

IG - Instituto Geofísico (Ecuador)

IGNS - Institute of Geological and Nuclear Sciences (New Zealand) - now GNS Science

INETER - Instituto Nicaragüense de Estudios Territoriales (Nicaragua)

INGEMMET - Instituto Geológical Minero y Metalúrgico (Peru)

INGEOMINAS - Instituto Colombiano de Geología y Minería (Colombia)

INGV-CT - Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia - Sezione di Catania (Italy)

INSIVUMEH - Instituto Nacional de Sismologia, Vulcanologia, Meteorologia e Hidrologia (Guatemala)

IRD - Institut de Recherche pour le Développement (France)

JMA - Japanese Meteorological Agency

KEMSD - Kamchatkan Experimental and Methodical Seismilogical Department

KVERT - Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team

M - magnitude

METEOSAT - Meteorological Satellite

MEVO - Mount Erebus Volcano Observatory

MODIS - Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer

MVO - Montserrat Volcano Observatory

MWO - Meteorological Watch Office

NEIC - National Earthquake Information Center

NIED - National Research Institute for Earth Science and Disaster Prevention (Japan)

NOAA - National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration

NOTAM - Notice to Airmen

OVDAS - Observatorio Volcanologico de los Andes del Sur (Chile)

OFDA - Office of US Foreign Disaster Assistance

ONEMI - Oficina Nacional de Emergencia - Ministerio del Interior (Chile)

OVPDLF - Observatoire Volcanologique du Piton de la Fournaise (France)

OVSICORI-UNA - Observatorio Vulcanologico y Sismologico de Costa Rica, Universidad Nacional (Costa Rica)

PHIVOLCS - Philippine Institute of Volcanology and Seismology (Philippines)

RSAM - Real-time Seismic Amplitude Measurement

RVO - Rabaul Volcano Observatory

SERNAGEOMIN - Servicio Nacional de Geologia y Mineria (Chile)

SIGMET - Significant Meteorological Information

SNET - Servicio Nacional de Estudios Territoriales (El Salvador)

SVERT - Sakhalin Volcanic Eruption Response Team (Russia)

USAID - US Agency for International Development

USGS - United States Geological Survey

UTC - Coordinated Universal Time

VAAC - Volcanic Ash Advisory Center

VAFTAD - Volcanic Ash Forecast Transport And Dispersion

VDAP - Volcano Disaster Assistance Program (USGS)

VHP - Volcano Hazards Program (USGS)

VRC - Volcano Research Center (Japan)