Hakoneyama

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  • Country
  • Volcanic Region
  • Primary Volcano Type
  • Last Known Eruption
  • 35.233°N
  • 139.021°E

  • 1438 m
    4717 ft

  • 283020
  • Latitude
  • Longitude

  • Summit
    Elevation

  • Volcano
    Number

Most Recent Weekly Report: 8 July-14 July 2015 Cite this Report


On 12 July JMA reported that the webcam continued to record vigorous fumarolic plumes rising from Hakoneyama's Owakudani hot spring area. The Alert Level remained at 3 (on a 5-level scale).

Source: Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA)


Most Recent Bulletin Report: April 1991 (BGVN 16:04) Cite this Report


Brief earthquake swarm in center of caldera

A swarm of ~300 earthquakes (M <= 2.5) was recorded between 1000 and 1300 on 22 April. Several of the earthquakes, located at 5 km depth in the central part of the caldera, were felt by area residents. Seismicity gradually declined, and had returned to normal by 24 April. No changes in surface activity were observed. Earthquake swarms have been recorded about once a year, including one in August 1990 (M <= 5.1), at the volcano's E foot. Hakone erupted phreatically about 3,000 years ago, and many fumaroles and hot springs remain active.

Information Contacts: JMA.

Weekly Reports - Index


2015: May | June | July
2001: August


8 July-14 July 2015 Cite this Report


On 12 July JMA reported that the webcam continued to record vigorous fumarolic plumes rising from Hakoneyama's Owakudani hot spring area. The Alert Level remained at 3 (on a 5-level scale).

Source: Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA)


1 July-7 July 2015 Cite this Report


According to a news article a drone that surveyed the Owakudani hot spring district at Hakoneyama recorded damage to three hot spring supply facilities; an exclusion zone for visitors was in effect due to increased seismic activity and an Alert Level raise to 2 (on a 5-level scale) on 6 May. At 1230 on 30 June a small-scale eruption occurred and the Alert Level was raised to 3. On 1 July a news article noted another small-scale eruption (occurring between 0400 and 0500), and JMA reported that ash deposits were visible with the webcam. During fieldwork on 2 July, scientists confirmed new fumaroles at Owakudani that were vigorously emitting white plumes; the new fumaroles had formed during 29-30 June. White fumarolic plumes continued to be emitted through 5 July.

Sources: Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA); The Japan Times; The Japan Times


24 June-30 June 2015 Cite this Report


JMA reported that on 29 June scientists visiting Hakoneyama observed new fumaroles in a landslide-prone area, appearing after a possible landslide had occurred. Fresh sediment deposits within 2 km were possibly caused by the formation of the fumaroles. Seismicity began increasing at 1930, and a 5-minute-period of volcanic tremor began at 1932. At 1230 on 30 June a small-scale eruption occurred. The Alert Level was raised to 3 (on a 5-level scale).

Source: Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA)


13 May-19 May 2015 Cite this Report


JMA reported that during 14-17 May seismicity at Hakoneyama remained high. Inclinometer data showed variations related to seismicity, and vigorous steaming from the hot springs was observed. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a 5-level scale). According to a news article, the ground level in the Owakudani hot spring area had risen 12 cm during 17 April-15 May; the deformation occurred in an area 200 m in diameter. The article also noted that 471 earthquakes were recorded on 15 May, the highest number ever recorded there in one day.

Source: Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA)


6 May-12 May 2015 Cite this Report


On 6 May JMA raised the Alert Level for Hakoneyama from 1 to 2 (on a 5-level scale). Seismicity had increased on 26 April, and on 5 May three events occurred that were Intensity I. Inclinometer data showed variations related to seismicity, and vigorous steaming from the hot springs was observed. Seismicity remained elevated at least through 10 May.

Source: Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA)


8 August-14 August 2001 Cite this Report


Elevated seismicity had been recorded at Hakone during June 2001 to at least 8 August. The seismicity was associated with a small amount of inflation that was centered at the volcano. Earthquake hypocenters occurred at depths less than 5 km beneath the volcano. A small swarm was also recorded under the northern end of the Ashino-ko (caldera lake). JMA noted that the change in activity might not be a precursor to an eruption since similar activity has occurred in the past that was not followed by an eruption.

Source: Volcano Research Center-Earthquake Research Institute (University of Tokyo)


Bulletin Reports - Index


Reports are organized chronologically and indexed below by Month/Year (Publication Volume:Number), and include a one-line summary. Click on the index link or scroll down to read the reports.

04/1991 (BGVN 16:04) Brief earthquake swarm in center of caldera




Information is preliminary and subject to change. All times are local (unless otherwise noted)


April 1991 (BGVN 16:04) Cite this Report


Brief earthquake swarm in center of caldera

A swarm of ~300 earthquakes (M <= 2.5) was recorded between 1000 and 1300 on 22 April. Several of the earthquakes, located at 5 km depth in the central part of the caldera, were felt by area residents. Seismicity gradually declined, and had returned to normal by 24 April. No changes in surface activity were observed. Earthquake swarms have been recorded about once a year, including one in August 1990 (M <= 5.1), at the volcano's E foot. Hakone erupted phreatically about 3,000 years ago, and many fumaroles and hot springs remain active.

Information Contacts: JMA.

Basic Data

Volcano Number

Last Known Eruption

Elevation

Latitude
Longitude
283020

2015 CE

1438 m / 4717 ft

35.233°N
139.021°E

Volcano Types

Complex
Caldera(s)
Lava dome(s)

Rock Types

Major
Andesite / Basaltic Andesite
Basalt / Picro-Basalt
Dacite

Tectonic Setting

Subduction zone
Continental crust (> 25 km)

Population

Within 5 km
Within 10 km
Within 30 km
Within 100 km
14,140
53,755
1,543,563
30,282,197

Geological Summary

Hakoneyama volcano is truncated by two overlapping calderas, the largest of which is 10 x 11 km wide. The calderas were formed as a result of two major explosive eruptions about 180,000 and 49,000-60,000 years ago. Scenic Lake Ashi lies between the SW caldera wall and a half dozen post-caldera lava domes that were constructed along a SW-NE trend cutting through the center of the calderas. Dome growth occurred progressively to the south, and the largest and youngest of these, Kamiyama, forms the high point of Hakoneyama. The calderas are breached to the east by the Hayakawa canyon. A phreatic explosion about 3000 years ago was followed by collapse of the NW side of Kamiyama, damming the Hayakawa valley and creating Lake Ashi. The latest magmatic eruptive activity about 2900 years ago produced a pyroclastic flow and a lava dome in the explosion crater, although phreatic eruptions took place as recently as the 12-13th centuries CE. Seismic swarms have occurred during the 20th century. Lake Ashi, along with major thermal areas in the caldera, forms a popular resort area SW of Tokyo.

References

The following references have all been used during the compilation of data for this volcano, it is not a comprehensive bibliography.

Hakamata K, Sugiyama S, Imanaga I, Mannen K, Oki Y, 2005. K-Ar ages of Hakone volcano, Japan. Bull Volc Soc Japan (Kazan), 50: 285-299 (in Japanese with English abs).

Japan Meteorological Agency, 1996. National Catalogue of the Active Volcanoes in Japan (second edition). Tokyo: Japan Meteorological Agency, 502 p (in Japanese).

Japan Meteorological Agency, 1975. National Catalogue of the Active Volcanoes in Japan. Tokyo: Japan Meteorological Agency, 119 p (in Japanese).

Japan Meteorological Agency, 2013. National Catalogue of the Active Volcanoes in Japan (fourth edition, English version). Japan Meteorological Agency.

Kobayashi M, Mannen K, Okuno M, Nakamura , Hakamata K, 2006. The Owakidani tephra group: a newly discovered post-magmatic eruption product of Hakano volcano, Japan. Bull Volc Soc Japan (Kazan), 51: 245-256 (in Japanese with English abs).

Kobayashi M, Okuno M, Nakamura T, 1997. 14C ages of pyroclastic-flow deposits from central cones on the western slope of Old Somma of Hakone volcano, central Japan. Bull Volc Soc Japan (Kazan), 42: 355-358 (in Japanese).

Kudo T, Hoshizumi H, 2006-. Catalog of eruptive events within the last 10,000 years in Japan, database of Japanese active volcanoes. Geol Surv Japan, AIST, http://riodb02.ibase.aist.go.jp/db099/eruption/index.html.

Kuno H, 1962. Japan, Taiwan and Marianas. Catalog of Active Volcanoes of the World and Solfatara Fields, Rome: IAVCEI, 11: 1-332.

Kuno H, Oki Y, Ogino K, Hirota S, 1970. Structure of the Hakone caldera as revealed by drilling. Bull Volc, 34: 713-725.

Nakano S, Yamamoto T, Iwaya T, Itoh J, Takada A, 2001-. Quaternary Volcanoes of Japan. Geol Surv Japan, AIST, http://www.aist.go.jp/RIODB/strata/VOL_JP/.

Oki Y, Aramaki S, Nakamura K, Hakamata K, 1978. Volcanoes of Hakone, Izu and Oshima. Hakone: Hakone Town Office, 59 p.

Eruptive History


Summary of Holocene eruption dates and Volcanic Explosivity Indices (VEI).


Start Date Stop Date Eruption Certainty VEI Evidence Activity Area or Unit
2015 Jun 29 2015 Jun 30 Confirmed   Historical Observations
1170 ± 100 years Unknown Confirmed   Radiocarbon (corrected) Owakudani, Hk-Ow 3-5 tephras
0050 BCE (?) Unknown Confirmed   Tephrochronology NE of Kamiyama, Hk-Ow2 tephra
1050 BCE (?) Unknown Confirmed   Tephrochronology NE of Kamiyama, Hk-Ow1 tephra
1200 BCE (?) Unknown Confirmed 2 Radiocarbon (corrected) NW side of Kami-yama (Kanmuriga-take)
1400 BCE ± 100 years Unknown Confirmed   Radiocarbon (corrected) NW side of Kami-yama (Kanmuriga-take)
3700 BCE ± 100 years Unknown Confirmed 1 Radiocarbon (corrected) Futago-yama
6000 BCE ± 100 years Unknown Confirmed 3 Radiocarbon (corrected) Kami-yama, Hk-Km5 tephra

This compilation of synonyms and subsidiary features may not be comprehensive. Features are organized into four major categories: Cones, Craters, Domes, and Thermal Features. Synonyms of features appear indented below the primary name. In some cases additional feature type, elevation, or location details are provided.


Synonyms

Hakone

Craters

Feature Name Feature Type Elevation Latitude Longitude
Hakone Caldera

Domes

Feature Name Feature Type Elevation Latitude Longitude
Futagoyama
    Futago-yama
Dome 1065 m
Kamiyama
    Kami-yama
Dome 1438 m 35° 13' 48" N 139° 1' 26" E
Komagatake
    Komaga-take
Dome 1327 m
Kozukayama
    Kozuka-yama
Dome 859 m

Thermal

Feature Name Feature Type Elevation Latitude Longitude
Owakudani Thermal
Sounzan Thermal

Photo Gallery


Hakone volcano, seen here from the west, is a broad stratovolcano truncated by two large calderas. A group of dacitic lava domes was constructed in the center of the caldera. The highest dome, Kami-yama, forms the high point of the volcano, topped by the clouds in the center of the photo. The caldera was created during two large Pleistocene eruptions. The latest eruption at Hakone took place about 3000 years ago, although seismic swarms have occurred frequently during the 20th century.

Photo by Lee Siebert, 1977 (Smithsonian Institution).
The slopes of a group of post-caldera dacitic lava domes rise at the left above Lake Ashi, which is constrained against the SW rim of Hakone caldera. Lake Ashi was formed when an avalanche from Kami-yama, the highest of the central lava domes, blocked river valleys that drain to the east through a breach in the caldera wall.

Photo by Lee Siebert, 1977 (Smithsonian Institution).
Scenic Lake Ashi, seen here from the SE, occupies the SW corner of Hakone caldera. Hakone contains two calderas, the largest of which is 10 x 11 km wide. The arcuate caldera rim is at the left, and the slopes of a group of post-caldera cones form the right-hand shoreline. Post-caldera eruptions have constructed a half dozen lava domes along a SW-NE trend cutting through the center of the calderas. The latest eruption took place about 3000 years ago, although seismic swarms have occurred frequently during the 20th century.

Photo by Lee Siebert, 1963 (Smithsonian Institution).
Aerial cable cars stretching across Owakudani provide a view of one of the many thermal areas in Hakone caldera. Hot spring resorts surround a complex of lava domes in the center of Hakone caldera, which is a popular vacation destination SW of Tokyo.

Photo by Lee Siebert, 1963 (Smithsonian Institution).
Kamiyama, the highest of a group of lava domes forming the central cone complex of Hakoneyama caldera, rises east of Ashinoko (Lake Ashi). The lake was formed about 3100 years ago when collapse of the NW side of Kamiyama dammed the Hayakawa river valley at the north end of the lake (lower left). Dome and spine extrusion at Kamiyama about 200 radiocarbon-years later marks the last known eruptive activity of Hakone volcano.

Photo by Lee Siebert, 1977 (Smithsonian Institution).

Smithsonian Sample Collections Database


A listing of samples from the Smithsonian collections will be available soon.

Affiliated Sites

Large Eruptions of Hakoneyama Information about large Quaternary eruptions (VEI >= 4) is cataloged in the Large Magnitude Explosive Volcanic Eruptions (LaMEVE) database of the Volcano Global Risk Identification and Analysis Project (VOGRIPA).
WOVOdat WOVOdat is a database of volcanic unrest; instrumentally and visually recorded changes in seismicity, ground deformation, gas emission, and other parameters from their normal baselines. It is sponsored by the World Organization of Volcano Observatories (WOVO) and presently hosted at the Earth Observatory of Singapore.
EarthChem EarthChem develops and maintains databases, software, and services that support the preservation, discovery, access and analysis of geochemical data, and facilitate their integration with the broad array of other available earth science parameters. EarthChem is operated by a joint team of disciplinary scientists, data scientists, data managers and information technology developers who are part of the NSF-funded data facility Integrated Earth Data Applications (IEDA). IEDA is a collaborative effort of EarthChem and the Marine Geoscience Data System (MGDS).
MODVOLC - HIGP MODIS Thermal Alert System Using infrared satellite Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) data, scientists at the Hawai'i Institute of Geophysics and Planetology, University of Hawai'i, developed an automated system called MODVOLC to map thermal hot-spots in near real time. For each MODIS image, the algorithm automatically scans each 1 km pixel within it to check for high-temperature hot-spots. When one is found the date, time, location, and intensity are recorded. MODIS looks at every square km of the Earth every 48 hours, once during the day and once during the night, and the presence of two MODIS sensors in space allows at least four hot-spot observations every two days. Each day updated global maps are compiled to display the locations of all hot spots detected in the previous 24 hours. There is a drop-down list with volcano names which allow users to 'zoom-in' and examine the distribution of hot-spots at a variety of spatial scales.
MIROVA Middle InfraRed Observation of Volcanic Activity (MIROVA) is a near real time volcanic hot-spot detection system based on the analysis of MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) data. In particular, MIROVA uses the Middle InfraRed Radiation (MIR), measured over target volcanoes, in order to detect, locate and measure the heat radiation sourced from volcanic activity.