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Smithsonian / USGS Weekly Volcanic Activity Report

You are currently viewing Archived reports for the week of 24 May-30 May 2017.


















 Activity for the week of 24 May-30 May 2017

The Weekly Volcanic Activity Report is a cooperative project between the Smithsonian's Global Volcanism Program and the US Geological Survey's Volcano Hazards Program. Updated by 2300 UTC every Wednesday, notices of volcanic activity posted on these pages are preliminary and subject to change as events are studied in more detail. This is not a comprehensive list of all of Earth's volcanoes erupting during the week, but rather a summary of activity at volcanoes that meet criteria discussed in detail in the "Criteria and Disclaimers" section. Carefully reviewed, detailed reports on various volcanoes are published monthly in the Bulletin of the Global Volcanism Network.

Name Location Activity
Poas Costa Rica New
Rincon de la Vieja Costa Rica New
Sheveluch Central Kamchatka (Russia) New

Aira Kyushu (Japan) Ongoing
Bezymianny Central Kamchatka (Russia) Ongoing
Bogoslof Fox Islands (USA) Ongoing
Cleveland Chuginadak Island (USA) Ongoing
Colima Mexico Ongoing
Dukono Halmahera (Indonesia) Ongoing
Ebeko Paramushir Island (Russia) Ongoing
Fuego Guatemala Ongoing
Kilauea Hawaiian Islands (USA) Ongoing
Klyuchevskoy Central Kamchatka (Russia) Ongoing
Langila New Britain (Papua New Guinea) Ongoing
Manam Papua New Guinea Ongoing
Nevado del Ruiz Colombia Ongoing
Pacaya Guatemala Ongoing
Sabancaya Peru Ongoing
Santa Maria Guatemala Ongoing
Sinabung Indonesia Ongoing
Turrialba Costa Rica Ongoing


New Activity / Unrest


Volcano index photo  Poas  | Costa Rica  | 10.2°N, 84.233°W  | Elevation 2708 m

OVSICORI-UNA reported that tremor amplitude at Poás fluctuated between low and high levels during 23-30 May, often corresponding to the vigor of emissions of water vapor, magmatic gases, and material from fumarolic vents. During 25-26 May ashfall was reported in some communities around the volcano. Low magnitude volcano-tectonic earthquakes and small phreatic eruptions were recorded sporadically during 27-30 May.

Source: Observatorio Vulcanologico y Sismologico de Costa Rica-Universidad Nacional (OVSICORI-UNA)



Volcano index photo  Rincon de la Vieja  | Costa Rica  | 10.83°N, 85.324°W  | Elevation 1916 m

OVSICORI-UNA reported that a small hydrothermal explosion occurred at 1020 on 23 May in Rincón de la Vieja's crater lake, producing a small lahar that traveled down the N flank of the crater.

Source: Observatorio Vulcanologico y Sismologico de Costa Rica-Universidad Nacional (OVSICORI-UNA)



Volcano index photo  Sheveluch  | Central Kamchatka (Russia)  | 56.653°N, 161.36°E  | Elevation 3283 m

KVERT reported that during 23-25 May powerful explosions at Sheveluch generated ash plumes that rose 8 km (26,200 ft) a.s.l. and drifted 715 km in different directions. At 0830 on 25 May explosions generated ash plumes that rose 9-10 km (29,500-32,800 ft) a.s.l. and drifted 16 km NE. The Aviation Color Code (ACC) was raised to Red (the highest color on a four-color scale). Around 30 minutes later the ash plume was identified in satellite images drifting 45 km ENE. Strong steam-and-gas emissions rose from the lava dome. The ACC was lowered to Orange. Within the next hour the ash plume drifted 82 km E.

Source: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT)



Ongoing Activity


Volcano index photo  Aira  | Kyushu (Japan)  | 31.593°N, 130.657°E  | Elevation 1117 m

JMA reported 22 events at Showa Crater (at Aira Caldera’s Sakurajima volcano) during 22-29 May, seven of which were explosive. The explosions ejected material as high as 800 m above the crater rim, and as far away as 500 m. Ash plumes rose as high as 3.3 km on 23 May and 3.4 km on 29 May. Crater incandescence was detected on 25 May. A very small event occurred at Minamidake summit crater on 26 May. The Alert Level remained at 3 (on a 5-level scale).

Source: Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA)



Volcano index photo  Bezymianny  | Central Kamchatka (Russia)  | 55.972°N, 160.595°E  | Elevation 2882 m

On 26 May KVERT reported that after an explosive eruption at Bezymianny on 9 March, and the effusion of several lava flows onto the dome flanks, the volcano became quiet. Gas-and-steam emissions continued, along with a thermal anomaly identified in satellite images. The Aviation Color Code was lowered to Yellow (the second lowest level on a four-color scale).

Source: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT)



Volcano index photo  Bogoslof  | Fox Islands (USA)  | 53.93°N, 168.03°W  | Elevation 150 m

An eruption at Bogoslof began at 1416 on 28 May prompting AVO to raise the Aviation Color Code (ACC) to Red and the Volcano Alert Level (VAL) to Warning. Pilot and satellite observations indicated than ash plumes rose at least 10.7 km (35,000 ft) a.s.l. and possibly as high as 13.7 km (45,000 ft) a.s.l. An observer on Unalaska Island reported seeing a large white-gray mushroom cloud form over Bogoslof, with ashfall to the W. The event lasted 50 minutes. On 29 May the ash cloud continued to drift NE. No detectable activity was observed in data from seismic or infrasound stations located on nearby Islands, and no new activity has been observed in satellite data. The ACC was lowered to Orange and the VAL was lowered to Watch.

Source: US Geological Survey Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO)



Volcano index photo  Cleveland  | Chuginadak Island (USA)  | 52.825°N, 169.944°W  | Elevation 1730 m

AVO reported that no significant volcanic activity at Cleveland was detected in seismic, infrasound, or mostly cloudy satellite images during 24-30 May. The webcam periodically recorded steam emissions. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange and the Volcano Alert Level remained at Watch.

Source: US Geological Survey Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO)



Volcano index photo  Colima  | Mexico  | 19.514°N, 103.62°W  | Elevation 3850 m

On 26 May the Centro Universitario de Estudios e Investigaciones de Vulcanologia - Universidad de Colima reported that during the previous week seismic data revealed 36 high-frequency events, 20 long-period events, 2.6 hours of tremor, 12 landslides, and three low-intensity explosions. On 23 May sulfur dioxide emissions were below detectable limits (8.6 tons/day). A short-lived, low-amplitude episode of tremor was detected on 24 May.

Source: Centro Universitario de Estudios e Investigaciones de Vulcanologia - Universidad de Colima



Volcano index photo  Dukono  | Halmahera (Indonesia)  | 1.693°N, 127.894°E  | Elevation 1229 m

Based on analyses of satellite imagery and wind model data the Darwin VAAC reported that during 24-30 May ash plumes from Dukono rose to an altitude of 2.1 km (7,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted NW, W, and SW. Plumes drifted over 230 km W on 27 May.

Source: Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC)



Volcano index photo  Ebeko  | Paramushir Island (Russia)  | 50.686°N, 156.014°E  | Elevation 1103 m

KVERT reported that during 23-24 May explosions at Ebeko were observed by residents of Severo-Kurilsk (Paramushir Island) about 7 km E. Ash plumes rose as high as 2 km (6,600 ft) a.s.l. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange (the second highest level on a four-color scale).

Source: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT)



Volcano index photo  Fuego  | Guatemala  | 14.473°N, 90.88°W  | Elevation 3763 m

INSIVUMEH reported that on 23 May a hot lahar descended Fuego’s Santa Teresa (W) drainage, carrying blocks 2 m in diameter, branches, and tree trunks. The lahar was 10 m wide and 1 m high, and could be heard in the vicinity of the drainage. On 27 May a large hot lahar traveled down the Santa Teresa drainage, carrying blocks 2 m in diameter, branches, and tree trunks. The lahar was 30 m wide, 2 m high, and had a strong sulfur odor.

During 24-25 and 27-30 May explosions generated ash plumes that rose as high as 950 m above the crater rim and drifted as far as 12 km W and SW. Ash fell in multiple areas including Panimaché I and II (8 km SW), Morelia (9 km SW), Santa Sofía (12 km SW), Los Yucales, El Porvenir, and Sangre de Cristo (8 km WSW). Incandescent material was ejected as high as 250 m above the crater rim, and caused avalanches of material that traveled into the Ceniza (SSW), Taniluyá (SW), and Santa Teresa drainages.

Source: Instituto Nacional de Sismologia, Vulcanologia, Meteorologia, e Hidrologia (INSIVUMEH)



Volcano index photo  Kilauea  | Hawaiian Islands (USA)  | 19.421°N, 155.287°W  | Elevation 1222 m

During 24-30 May HVO reported that the lava lake continued to rise, fall, and spatter in Kilauea’s Overlook crater. A portion of the N Overlook crater wall collapsed into the lake, causing lake agitation and depositing tephra at the Hawaiian Volcano Observatory and Jaggar Museum. Webcams recorded incandescence from long-active sources within Pu'u 'O'o Crater, from a vent high on the NE flank of the cone, and from a small lava pond in a pit on the W side of the crater. The 61G lava flow, originating from a vent on Pu'u 'O'o Crater's E flank, continued to enter the ocean at Kamokuna adding to a growing delta. Narrow cracks on the delta parallel to the coast were noted. Surface lava flows were active above and on the upper slopes of the pali.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)



Volcano index photo  Klyuchevskoy  | Central Kamchatka (Russia)  | 56.056°N, 160.642°E  | Elevation 4754 m

KVERT reported that a weak thermal anomaly was identified in satellite images over Klyuchevskoy on 22 and 25 May; weather clouds often obscured views of the volcano. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange (the second highest level on a four-color scale).

Source: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT)



Volcano index photo  Langila  | New Britain (Papua New Guinea)  | 5.525°S, 148.42°E  | Elevation 1330 m

Based on analyses of satellite imagery and wind model data, the Darwin VAAC reported that during 24-27 May ash plumes from Langila rose 2.1-3 km (7,000-10,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted 75-85 km W and NW.

Source: Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC)



Volcano index photo  Manam  | Papua New Guinea  | 4.08°S, 145.037°E  | Elevation 1807 m

RVO reported that Strombolian activity at Manam’s Southern Crater during 13-14 and 18 May generated lava flows that descended the SW valley. Lava flows traveled to 180-220 m elevation during 13-14 May but were significantly small on 18 May. Activity was low on other days during 13-26 May; ash plumes rose from the crater during 15-18 May. Conditions were quiet at Main Crater. RVO recommended that the Alert Level be lowered to Stage 1.

Source: Rabaul Volcano Observatory (RVO)



Volcano index photo  Nevado del Ruiz  | Colombia  | 4.892°N, 75.324°W  | Elevation 5279 m

Servicio Geológico Colombiano’s (SGC) Observatorio Vulcanológico y Sismológico de Manizales reported that during 23-29 May seismicity at Nevado del Ruiz continued to indicate unrest. Five episodes of drumbeat seismicity (low-energy long-period events) were recorded between 1343 and 1930 on 29 May, likely signifying growing lava domes. Significant amounts of water vapor and gas continued to be emitted. Gas, steam, and ash plumes rose 880 m above the crater rim on 27 May and drifted NW and SW. A thermal anomaly was identified on 28 May. The Alert Level remained at III (Yellow; the second lowest level on a four-color scale).

Source: Servicio Geológico Colombiano (SGC)



Volcano index photo  Pacaya  | Guatemala  | 14.382°N, 90.601°W  | Elevation 2569 m

INSIVUMEH reported nighttime crater incandescence and small Strombolian explosions at Pacaya’s Mackenney cone during 27-28 May.

Source: Instituto Nacional de Sismologia, Vulcanologia, Meteorologia, e Hidrologia (INSIVUMEH)



Volcano index photo  Sabancaya  | Peru  | 15.787°S, 71.857°W  | Elevation 5960 m

Observatorio Vulcanológico del Sur del IGP (OVS-IGP) and Observatorio Vulcanológico del INGEMMET (OVI) reported that during 22-28 May explosive activity at Sabancaya slightly increased from the previous week, with an average of 41 explosions detected per day. Seismcity was dominated by long-period events, and the number and magnitude of hybrid events were low. Gas-and-ash plumes rose as high as 2.8 km above the crater rim and drifted more than 30 km E and SE. The MIROVA system detected two thermal anomalies.

Sources: Instituto Geológico Minero y Metalúrgico (INGEMMET), Instituto Geofísico del Perú (IGP)



Volcano index photo  Santa Maria  | Guatemala  | 14.757°N, 91.552°W  | Elevation 3745 m

INSIVUMEH reported that during 24-25 May avalanches of material from Santa María's Santiaguito lava-dome complex traveled short distances down the flanks. During 27-30 May weak explosions generated ash plumes that rose 600-700 m and drifted W and SW. Ashfall was reported in Monte Claro (S).

Source: Instituto Nacional de Sismologia, Vulcanologia, Meteorologia, e Hidrologia (INSIVUMEH)



Volcano index photo  Sinabung  | Indonesia  | 3.17°N, 98.392°E  | Elevation 2460 m

Based on PVMBG observations, webcam and satellite images, and wind data, the Darwin VAAC reported that during 24-29 May ash plumes from Sinabung rose 3.7-5.8 km (12,000-19,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted in multiple directions.

Source: Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC)



Volcano index photo  Turrialba  | Costa Rica  | 10.025°N, 83.767°W  | Elevation 3340 m

OVSICORI-UNA reported that tremor amplitude at Turrialba fluctuated from low to high levels during 23-30 May, often corresponding to emission characteristics. Periods of volcano-tectonic and long-period events were also recorded. During 24-26 May several passive and sporadic ash emissions rose no higher than 500 m above the vent and drifted NW and SW. Frequent and small explosions during 26-27 May generated ash plumes that rose higher than 500 m above the vent, and ejected material higher than 200 m and no farther than 100 m towards Central Crater. Small explosions during 27-29 May produced ash plumes that rose 300-500 m.

Source: Observatorio Vulcanologico y Sismologico de Costa Rica-Universidad Nacional (OVSICORI-UNA)



Weekly Reports Archive

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Chaiten Karthala Ontakesan Tandikat-Singgalang
Chiginagak Karymsky Oraefajokull Tangkoko-Duasudara
Chikurachki Kasatochi Osorno Tangkubanparahu
Chiles-Cerro Negro Katla Pacaya Tara, Batu
Chillan, Nevados de Kavachi Pagan Telica
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Chirpoi Kelut Paluweh Tengger Caldera
Cleveland Kerinci Panarea Three Sisters
Colima Ketoi Papandayan Tinakula
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Concepcion Kick 'em Jenny Pavlof Tokachidake
Copahue Kikai Peuet Sague Tolbachik
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Cuicocha Kirishimayama Planchon-Peteroa Tongariro
Cumbal Kizimen Poas Tungurahua
Dabbahu Klyuchevskoy Popocatepetl Turrialba
Dempo Kolokol Group Puyehue-Cordon Caulle Ubinas
Descabezado Grande Korovin Rabaul Ulawun
Dieng Volcanic Complex Koryaksky Raikoke Unknown Source
Dukono Krakatau Ranakah Unnamed
Ebeko Krummel-Garbuna-Welcker Raoul Island Unnamed
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Fernandina Lengai, Ol Doinyo Ruapehu Zhupanovsky
Fogo Leroboleng Ruiz, Nevado del Zubair Group
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Fourpeaked Little Sitkin Salak
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 News Feeds and Google Placemarks


The RSS (Really Simple Syndication) feed is identical to the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report minus some features including the header information (latitude and longitude and summit elevation), the Geologic Summary, and a link to the volcano's page from the Global Volcanism Program. Each volcano report includes a link from the volcano's name back to the more complete information in the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report on the Smithsonian website.




The CAP (Common Alerting Protocol) feeds are XML files specifically formatted for disaster management. They are similar in content to the RSS feed, but contain no active links.




A Google Earth network link for the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report can be loaded into the free Google Earth software, and in turn will load placemarks for volcanoes in the current weekly report. Placemark balloons include the volcano name, report date, report text, sources, and links back to the GVP volcano page for that volcano and to the complete Weekly Report for that week.

 Criteria & Disclaimers

Criteria

The Weekly Volcanic Activity Report does not necessarily include all volcanic activity that occurred on Earth during the week. More than a dozen volcanoes globally have displayed more-or-less continuous eruptive activity for decades or longer, and such routine activity is typically not reported here. Moreover, Earth's sea-floor volcanism is seldom reported even though in theory it represents the single most prolific source of erupted material. The Weekly Volcanic Activity Report summarizes volcanic activity that meets one or more of the following criteria:

- A volcano observatory raises or lowers the alert level at the volcano.
- A volcanic ash advisory has been released by a volcanic ash advisory center (VAAC) stating that an ash cloud has been produced from the volcano.
- A verifiable news report of new activity or a change in activity at the volcano has been issued.
- Observers have reported a significant change in volcanic activity. Such activity can include, but is not restricted to, pyroclastic flows, lahars, lava flows, dome collapse, or increased unrest.

Volcanoes are included in the "New Activity/Unrest" section of the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report if the activity occurs after at least 3 months of quiescence. Once a volcano is included in the "New Activity/Unrest" section, updates will remain in that section unless the activity continues for more than 1 month without escalating, after which time updates will be listed in the "Continuing Activity" section. Volcanoes are also included in the "New Activity/Unrest" section if the volcano is undergoing a period of relatively high unrest, or increasing unrest. This is commonly equal to Alert Level Orange on a scale of Green, Yellow, Orange, Red, where Red is the highest alert. Or alert level 3 on a scale of 1-4 or 1-5.

It is important to note that volcanic activity meeting one or more of these criteria may occur during the week, but may not be included in the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report because we did not receive a report.


Disclaimers

1. The Weekly Volcanic Activity Report is intended to provide timely information about global volcanism on a weekly basis. Consequently, the report is generated rapidly by summarizing volcanic reports from various sources, with little time for fact checking. The accuracy of the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report is dependent upon the quality of the volcanic activity reports we receive. Reports published in the Bulletin of the Global Volcanism Network are monthly, and more carefully reviewed, although all of the volcanoes discussed in the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report are not necessarily reported in the Bulletin. Because of our emphasis on rapid reporting on the web we have avoided diacritical marks. Reports are updated on the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report web page as they are received, therefore information may be included regarding events that occurred before the current report period.

2. Rapidly developing events lead to coverage that is often fragmentary. Volcanoes, their eruptions, and their plumes and associated atmospheric effects are complex phenomena that may require months to years of data analysis in order to create a comprehensive summary and interpretation of events.

3. Preliminary accounts sometimes contain exaggerations and "false alarms," and accordingly, this report may include some events ultimately found to be erroneous or misleading.

4. Many news agencies do not archive the articles they post on the Internet, and therefore the links to some sources may not be active. To obtain information about the cited articles that are no longer available on the Internet contact the source.

5. USGS Disclaimer Statement for this Website:

Information presented on this website is considered public information and may be distributed or copied. Use of appropriate byline/photo/image credit is requested. We strongly recommend that USGS data be acquired directly from a USGS server and not through other sources that may change the data in some way. While USGS makes every effort to provide accurate and complete information, various data such as names, telephone numbers, etc. may change prior to updating. USGS welcomes suggestions on how to improve our home page and correct errors. USGS provides no warranty, expressed or implied, as to the accuracy, reliability or completeness of furnished data.

Some of the documents on this server may contain live references (or pointers) to information created and maintained by other organizations. Please note that USGS does not control and cannot guarantee the relevance, timeliness, or accuracy of these outside materials.

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RSS and CAP Feeds

An RSS (Really Simple Syndication) feed for the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report first made available on 5 March 2008 can be utilized with the aid of various free downloadable readers. The report content of the news feed is identical to the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report minus some features including the header information (latitude and longitude and summit elevation), the Geologic Summary, and a link to the volcano's page from the Global Volcanism Program. Each volcano report includes a link from the volcano's name back to the more complete information in the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report on the Smithsonian website. On 12 March 2009, GeoRSS tags were added so that the latitude and longitude for each volcano could be included with the feed.

At the end of each individual report is a list of the sources used. We would like to emphasize that the World Organization of Volcano Observatories (WOVO) website (http://www.wovo.org/) lists the regional volcano observatories that have the most authoritative data for many of these events.

CAP (Common Alerting Protocol) feeds are XML files specifically formatted for disaster management.


Google Earth Placemarks

A Google Earth network link for the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report was first made available on 1 April 2009. This file can be loaded into the free Google Earth software, and in turn will load placemarks for volcanoes in the current weekly report. Placemark balloons include the volcano name, report date, report text, sources, and links back to the GVP volcano page for that volcano and to the complete Weekly Report for that week.

 Acronyms and Abbreviations

a.s.l. - above sea level

AVO - Alaska Volcano Observatory

AVHRR - Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer

CENAPRED - Centro Nacionale de Prevencion de Desastres (México)

CONRED - Coordinadora Nacional para la Reducción de Desastres

COSPEC - Correlation Spectrometer

CVGHM (formerly VSI) - Center of Volcanology and Geological Hazard Mitigation

CVO - Cascades Volcano Observatory (USGS)

GMS - Geostationary Meteorological Satellite

GOES - Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite

GVO - Goma Volcano Observatory

GVP - Global Volcanism Program (Smithsonian Institution)

HVO - Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (USGS)

ICE - Instituto Costarricense de Electricidad (Costa Rica)

IG - Instituto Geofísico (Ecuador)

IGNS - Institute of Geological and Nuclear Sciences (New Zealand) - now GNS Science

INETER - Instituto Nicaragüense de Estudios Territoriales (Nicaragua)

INGEMMET - Instituto Geológical Minero y Metalúrgico (Peru)

INGEOMINAS - Instituto Colombiano de Geología y Minería (Colombia)

INGV-CT - Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia - Sezione di Catania (Italy)

INSIVUMEH - Instituto Nacional de Sismologia, Vulcanologia, Meteorologia e Hidrologia (Guatemala)

IRD - Institut de Recherche pour le Développement (France)

JMA - Japanese Meteorological Agency

KEMSD - Kamchatkan Experimental and Methodical Seismilogical Department

KVERT - Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team

M - magnitude

METEOSAT - Meteorological Satellite

MEVO - Mount Erebus Volcano Observatory

MODIS - Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer

MVO - Montserrat Volcano Observatory

MWO - Meteorological Watch Office

NEIC - National Earthquake Information Center

NIED - National Research Institute for Earth Science and Disaster Prevention (Japan)

NOAA - National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration

NOTAM - Notice to Airmen

OVDAS - Observatorio Volcanologico de los Andes del Sur (Chile)

OFDA - Office of US Foreign Disaster Assistance

ONEMI - Oficina Nacional de Emergencia - Ministerio del Interior (Chile)

OVPDLF - Observatoire Volcanologique du Piton de la Fournaise (France)

OVSICORI-UNA - Observatorio Vulcanologico y Sismologico de Costa Rica, Universidad Nacional (Costa Rica)

PHIVOLCS - Philippine Institute of Volcanology and Seismology (Philippines)

RSAM - Real-time Seismic Amplitude Measurement

RVO - Rabaul Volcano Observatory

SERNAGEOMIN - Servicio Nacional de Geologia y Mineria (Chile)

SIGMET - Significant Meteorological Information

SNET - Servicio Nacional de Estudios Territoriales (El Salvador)

SVERT - Sakhalin Volcanic Eruption Response Team (Russia)

USAID - US Agency for International Development

USGS - United States Geological Survey

UTC - Coordinated Universal Time

VAAC - Volcanic Ash Advisory Center

VAFTAD - Volcanic Ash Forecast Transport And Dispersion

VDAP - Volcano Disaster Assistance Program (USGS)

VHP - Volcano Hazards Program (USGS)

VRC - Volcano Research Center (Japan)