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Smithsonian / USGS Weekly Volcanic Activity Report

You are currently viewing Archived reports for the week of 28 June-4 July 2017.


















 Activity for the week of 28 June-4 July 2017

The Weekly Volcanic Activity Report is a cooperative project between the Smithsonian's Global Volcanism Program and the US Geological Survey's Volcano Hazards Program. Updated by 2300 UTC every Wednesday, notices of volcanic activity posted on these pages are preliminary and subject to change as events are studied in more detail. This is not a comprehensive list of all of Earth's volcanoes erupting during the week, but rather a summary of activity at volcanoes that meet criteria discussed in detail in the "Criteria and Disclaimers" section. Carefully reviewed, detailed reports on various volcanoes are published monthly in the Bulletin of the Global Volcanism Network.

Name Location Activity
Bogoslof Fox Islands (USA) New
Dieng Volcanic Complex Central Java (Indonesia) New
Karymsky Eastern Kamchatka (Russia) New
Reventador Ecuador New
Sheveluch Central Kamchatka (Russia) New
Ulawun New Britain (Papua New Guinea) New

Aira Kyushu (Japan) Ongoing
Bagana Bougainville (Papua New Guinea) Ongoing
Bezymianny Central Kamchatka (Russia) Ongoing
Cleveland Chuginadak Island (USA) Ongoing
Copahue Central Chile-Argentina border Ongoing
Dukono Halmahera (Indonesia) Ongoing
Ebeko Paramushir Island (Russia) Ongoing
Kilauea Hawaiian Islands (USA) Ongoing
Klyuchevskoy Central Kamchatka (Russia) Ongoing
Nishinoshima Japan Ongoing
Poas Costa Rica Ongoing
Popocatepetl Mexico Ongoing
Sabancaya Peru Ongoing
Sinabung Indonesia Ongoing
Suwanosejima Ryukyu Islands (Japan) Ongoing
Turrialba Costa Rica Ongoing


New Activity / Unrest


Volcano index photo  Bogoslof  | Fox Islands (USA)  | 53.93°N, 168.03°W  | Elevation 150 m

AVO reported that an explosion at Bogoslof was detected at 0124 on 30 June and lasted about 20 minutes. A small cloud from the event drifted about 16 km N and by 1815 had dissipated. Seismicity declined afterwards but continued intermittently at low levels. Beginning at 1248 on 2 July a significant explosive event was detected in seismic and infrasound data. The event lasted about 16 minutes, and produced an ash plume that rose as high as 11 km (36,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted E. AVO raised the Aviation Color Code (ACC) to Red and the Volcano Alert Level (VAL) to Warning. Following the eruption seismicity declined and no signs of volcanic unrest were detected in seismic, infrasound, or satellite data on 3 July; the ACC was lowered to Orange and the VAL was lowered to Watch. The ACC and VAL were again raised to Red and Warning, respectively, following an explosive event that began at 1651 on 4 July and lasted 13 minutes. An eruption cloud rose as high as 8.5 km (28,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted SE. An 11-minute-long eruption began at 1907 on 4 July, producing a small cloud that rose 9.8 km (32,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted SE.

Source: US Geological Survey Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO)



Volcano index photo  Dieng Volcanic Complex  | Central Java (Indonesia)  | 7.2°S, 109.879°E  | Elevation 2565 m

BNPB reported that a phreatic eruption at the Sileri Crater lake (Dieng Volcanic Complex) occurred at 1154 on 2 July, ejecting mud and material 150 m high, and 50 m to the N and S. The event injured 11 of 18 tourists that were near the crater. According to a news article a helicopter on the way to help evacuated people after the event crashed, killing all eight people (four crewmen and four rescuers) on board.

PVMBG scientists visited the next day and observed weak white emissions rising 60 m. The report noted other events during the recent past; an event at 1303 on 30 April ejected material 10 m high and 1 m past the crater edge that formed a 1-2 mm thick deposit, and an emission at 0941 on 24 May consisting of gas and black “smoke” that rose 20 m. The Alert Level remained at 1 (on a scale of 1-4) and PVMBG warned the public not to approach Sileri Crater within a 100-m radius.

Sources: Associated Press, Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG, also known as CVGHM), ABC News - American Broadcasting Corporation, Badan Nacional Penanggulangan Bencana (BNPB)



Volcano index photo  Karymsky  | Eastern Kamchatka (Russia)  | 54.049°N, 159.443°E  | Elevation 1513 m

KVERT reported that a thermal anomaly over Karymsky was identified in satellite images during 23-24 and 27-28 June. An ash plume drifted 55 km SW on 24 June. Explosions on 26 June generated ash plumes that rose to an altitude of 6 km (19,700 ft) a.s.l. and drifted 165 km SE during 26-27 June. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange (the second highest level on a four-color scale).

Source: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT)



Volcano index photo  Reventador  | Ecuador  | 0.077°S, 77.656°W  | Elevation 3562 m

During 28 June-4 July IG reported a high level of seismic activity including explosions, long-period earthquakes, harmonic tremor, and signals indicating emissions at Reventador. During 28 June-1 July plumes of water vapor and ash rose as high as 500 m above the crater rim. A 2-km-long lava flow continued to slowly advance down the NW flank. Incandescent blocks from the crater rolled at most 300 m down the W, SW, and S flanks. Cloudy weather prevented visual observations during 2-4 July.

Source: Instituto Geofísico-Escuela Politécnica Nacional (IG)



Volcano index photo  Sheveluch  | Central Kamchatka (Russia)  | 56.653°N, 161.36°E  | Elevation 3283 m

KVERT reported that a thermal anomaly was identified daily in satellite images over Sheveluch during 23-30 June. Explosions on 27 June generated ash plumes that rose as high as 10 km (32,800 ft) a.s.l. and drifted 1,400 km SE. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange (the second highest level on a four-color scale).

Source: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT)



Volcano index photo  Ulawun  | New Britain (Papua New Guinea)  | 5.05°S, 151.33°E  | Elevation 2334 m

Based on analyses of satellite imagery, the Darwin VAAC reported that on 28 June ash plumes from Ulawun rose to an altitude of 2.7 km (9,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted W.

Source: Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC)



Ongoing Activity


Volcano index photo  Aira  | Kyushu (Japan)  | 31.593°N, 130.657°E  | Elevation 1117 m

JMA reported that events at Showa Crater (at Aira Caldera’s Sakurajima volcano) at 1811 and 1904 on 27 June generated ash plumes that rose 1 km above the crater rim. Weak incandescence from the crater was noted on 30 June. During 30 June-3 July there were five events, one of which was explosive. Material was ejected as far away as 500 m from the crater. The Alert Level remained at 3 (on a 5-level scale).

Source: Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA)



Volcano index photo  Bagana  | Bougainville (Papua New Guinea)  | 6.137°S, 155.196°E  | Elevation 1855 m

Based on analyses of satellite imagery and model data, the Darwin VAAC reported that on 2 July an ash plume from Bagana drifted W at an altitude of 2.1 km (7,000 ft) a.s.l.

Source: Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC)



Volcano index photo  Bezymianny  | Central Kamchatka (Russia)  | 55.972°N, 160.595°E  | Elevation 2882 m

KVERT reported that incandescence from Bezymianny's lava dome was observed at night during 23-30 June, and a lava flow continued to flow down the W flank of the dome. A thermal anomaly was identified daily in satellite images. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange (the second highest level on a four-color scale).

Source: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT)



Volcano index photo  Cleveland  | Chuginadak Island (USA)  | 52.825°N, 169.944°W  | Elevation 1730 m

A moderate 10-minute-long explosion at Cleveland was detected in both seismic and infrasound data beginning at 0319 on 4 July, prompting AVO to raise the Aviation Color Code to Orange and the Volcano Alert Level to Watch. After the event, seismicity declined and remained low. Satellite images showed no clear evidence of an ash plume.

Source: US Geological Survey Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO)



Volcano index photo  Copahue  | Central Chile-Argentina border  | 37.856°S, 71.183°W  | Elevation 2953 m

OVDAS-SERNAGEOMIN reported that during 5-15 June the seismic network at Copahue detected long-period earthquakes. Gas plumes constantly rose from El Agrio crater and on several days contained ash. The highest plume, detected on 5 June, rose 300 m and drifted E. The Buenos Aires VAAC reported that on 1 July the webcam recorded a steam-and-gas plume with minor ash near the summit. The Alert Level remained at Yellow (the second lowest on a four-color scale); SERNAGEOMIN recommended no entry into a restricted area within 1 km of the crater.

Sources: Buenos Aires Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC), Servicio Nacional de Geología y Minería (SERNAGEOMIN)



Volcano index photo  Dukono  | Halmahera (Indonesia)  | 1.693°N, 127.894°E  | Elevation 1229 m

Based on analyses of satellite imagery, wind model data, and notices from PVMBG, the Darwin VAAC reported that during 28 June-4 July ash plumes from Dukono rose to an altitude of 2.1 km (7,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted E, ESE, and S.

Source: Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC)



Volcano index photo  Ebeko  | Paramushir Island (Russia)  | 50.686°N, 156.014°E  | Elevation 1103 m

Based on observations by residents of Severo-Kurilsk (Paramushir Island), about 7 km E of Ebeko, explosions during 23-30 June generated ash plumes that rose as high as 2 km (6,600 ft) a.s.l. Ashfall was reported in Severo-Kurilsk on 24 and 26 June. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange (the second highest level on a four-color scale).

Source: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT)



Volcano index photo  Kilauea  | Hawaiian Islands (USA)  | 19.421°N, 155.287°W  | Elevation 1222 m

During 28 June-4 July HVO reported that the lava lake continued to rise, fall, and spatter in Kilauea’s Overlook crater. Webcams recorded incandescence from long-active sources within Pu'u 'O'o Crater, from a vent high on the NE flank of the cone, and from a small lava pond (which had many small spattering sites along the margin) in a pit on the W side of the crater. The 61G lava flow, originating from a vent on Pu'u 'O'o Crater's E flank, continued to enter the ocean at Kamokuna. A solidified lava ramp extended from the tube exit high on the sea cliff down to the growing delta, whose leading edge was about 100 m from the tube exit on the sea cliff.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)



Volcano index photo  Klyuchevskoy  | Central Kamchatka (Russia)  | 56.056°N, 160.642°E  | Elevation 4754 m

KVERT reported that during 22-24 and 27-28 June a weak thermal anomaly was identified in satellite images at Klyuchevskoy. Explosions on 24 and 26 June generated ash plumes that rose to 5-6 km (16,400-19,700 ft) a.s.l. and drifted 112 km S and SE. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange (the second highest level on a four-color scale).

Source: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT)



Volcano index photo  Nishinoshima  | Japan  | 27.247°N, 140.874°E  | Elevation 25 m

Based on satellite images, pilot observations, and information from JMA, the Tokyo VAAC reported that during 30 June-2 July ash plumes from Nishinoshima rose 1.5-3 km (5,000-10,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted W and E.

Source: Tokyo Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)



Volcano index photo  Poas  | Costa Rica  | 10.2°N, 84.233°W  | Elevation 2708 m

OVSICORI-UNA reported low-to-moderate-amplitude tremor with occasional periods of high-frequency volcano-tectonic events detected at Poás during 28-29 June. Webcams recorded intense incandescence at night from the bottom of the crater. A sulfur odor was noted in San Rafael de Poás and Vara Blanca. An event at 1115 on 19 June generated a plume that rose 1 km above the vents. An event at 1450 may have generated a plume, but poor visibility did not allow for confirmation. During 1-4 July frequent but small Strombolian activity ejected incandescent material that fell around vent “A” (Boca Roja). Plumes of water vapor, magmatic gases, and particulates rose at most 500 m from the vents.

Source: Observatorio Vulcanologico y Sismologico de Costa Rica-Universidad Nacional (OVSICORI-UNA)



Volcano index photo  Popocatepetl  | Mexico  | 19.023°N, 98.622°W  | Elevation 5393 m

Each day during 28 June-4 July CENAPRED reported 67-240 steam and gas emissions from Popocatépetl, some of which contained minor amounts of ash. Explosions were detected on 28 June (4), on 30 June (1), on 2 July (5), and on 3 July (1), though cloudy conditions prevented visual confirmation of possible ash, gas, and steam plumes. Minor ashfall on 2 July was noted in Ozumba, Amecameca, Tlalmanalco, Chalco, Ayapango, Tenango del Aire, and San Pedro Nexapa. An explosion at 1145 on 4 July generated an ash plume that rose 2.5 km above the crater rim and drifted W. The Alert Level remained at Yellow, Phase Two.

Source: Centro Nacional de Prevencion de Desastres (CENAPRED)



Volcano index photo  Sabancaya  | Peru  | 15.787°S, 71.857°W  | Elevation 5960 m

Observatorio Vulcanológico del Sur del IGP (OVS-IGP) and Observatorio Vulcanológico del INGEMMET (OVI) reported that explosive activity at Sabancaya continued to decline; there was an average of five explosions recorded per day during 26 June-2 July. The explosions were also less energetic. Gas-and-ash plumes rose as high as 1.5 km above the crater rim and drifted more than 30 km SE. Sulfur dioxide flux was as high as 1,472 tons per day, recorded on 1 July.

Sources: Instituto Geológico Minero y Metalúrgico (INGEMMET), Instituto Geofísico del Perú (IGP)



Volcano index photo  Sinabung  | Indonesia  | 3.17°N, 98.392°E  | Elevation 2460 m

Based on PVMBG observations, satellite images, and wind data, the Darwin VAAC reported that during 29 June-3 July ash plumes from Sinabung rose 3.3-4.9 km (11,000-16,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted ESE.

Source: Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC)



Volcano index photo  Suwanosejima  | Ryukyu Islands (Japan)  | 29.638°N, 129.714°E  | Elevation 796 m

Based on JMA notices and satellite-image analyses, the Tokyo VAAC reported that on 2 July ash plumes from Suwanosejima rose to altitudes of 1.8-2.4 km (6,000-8,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted N.

Source: Tokyo Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)



Volcano index photo  Turrialba  | Costa Rica  | 10.025°N, 83.767°W  | Elevation 3340 m

OVSICORI-UNA reported that during 29 June-4 July seismicity at Turrialba was characterized by low-to-medium amplitude tremor, and a small number of low-amplitude volcano-tectonic and long-period events. Plumes of water vapor, magmatic gases, and occasional ash rose as high as 1 km above the West Crater fumaroles. Incandescence from the main crater was recorded at night. Minor ashfall and a sulfur odor was reported in areas of San José including Rancho Redondo, Goicoechea, Moravia, San Pedro Montes de Oca, and Guadalupe.

Source: Observatorio Vulcanologico y Sismologico de Costa Rica-Universidad Nacional (OVSICORI-UNA)



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Chachadake [Tiatia] Karangetang Nyiragongo Talang
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Chikurachki Karymsky Ontakesan Tandikat-Singgalang
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Chillan, Nevados de Katla Osorno Tangkubanparahu
Chirinkotan Kavachi Pacaya Tara, Batu
Chirpoi Kelimutu Pagan Telica
Cleveland Kelut Palena Volcanic Group Tenerife
Colima Kerinci Paluweh Tengger Caldera
Colo Ketoi Panarea Three Sisters
Concepcion Kharimkotan Papandayan Tinakula
Copahue Kick 'em Jenny Parker Tofua
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Cuicocha Kilauea Peuet Sague Tolbachik
Cumbal Kirishimayama Pinatubo Toliman
Dabbahu Kizimen Planchon-Peteroa Tongariro
Dempo Klyuchevskoy Poas Tungurahua
Descabezado Grande Kolokol Group Popocatepetl Turrialba
Dieng Volcanic Complex Korovin Puyehue-Cordon Caulle Ubinas
Dukono Koryaksky Rabaul Ulawun
Ebeko Krakatau Ranakah Unknown Source
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Fernandina Lascar Ruang Zavodovski
Fogo Lengai, Ol Doinyo Ruapehu Zhupanovsky
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Fournaise, Piton de la Lewotobi Sabancaya
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 News Feeds and Google Placemarks


The RSS (Really Simple Syndication) feed is identical to the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report minus some features including the header information (latitude and longitude and summit elevation), the Geologic Summary, and a link to the volcano's page from the Global Volcanism Program. Each volcano report includes a link from the volcano's name back to the more complete information in the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report on the Smithsonian website.




The CAP (Common Alerting Protocol) feeds are XML files specifically formatted for disaster management. They are similar in content to the RSS feed, but contain no active links.




A Google Earth network link for the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report can be loaded into the free Google Earth software, and in turn will load placemarks for volcanoes in the current weekly report. Placemark balloons include the volcano name, report date, report text, sources, and links back to the GVP volcano page for that volcano and to the complete Weekly Report for that week.

 Criteria & Disclaimers

Criteria

The Weekly Volcanic Activity Report does not necessarily include all volcanic activity that occurred on Earth during the week. More than a dozen volcanoes globally have displayed more-or-less continuous eruptive activity for decades or longer, and such routine activity is typically not reported here. Moreover, Earth's sea-floor volcanism is seldom reported even though in theory it represents the single most prolific source of erupted material. The Weekly Volcanic Activity Report summarizes volcanic activity that meets one or more of the following criteria:

- A volcano observatory raises or lowers the alert level at the volcano.
- A volcanic ash advisory has been released by a volcanic ash advisory center (VAAC) stating that an ash cloud has been produced from the volcano.
- A verifiable news report of new activity or a change in activity at the volcano has been issued.
- Observers have reported a significant change in volcanic activity. Such activity can include, but is not restricted to, pyroclastic flows, lahars, lava flows, dome collapse, or increased unrest.

Volcanoes are included in the "New Activity/Unrest" section of the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report if the activity occurs after at least 3 months of quiescence. Once a volcano is included in the "New Activity/Unrest" section, updates will remain in that section unless the activity continues for more than 1 month without escalating, after which time updates will be listed in the "Continuing Activity" section. Volcanoes are also included in the "New Activity/Unrest" section if the volcano is undergoing a period of relatively high unrest, or increasing unrest. This is commonly equal to Alert Level Orange on a scale of Green, Yellow, Orange, Red, where Red is the highest alert. Or alert level 3 on a scale of 1-4 or 1-5.

It is important to note that volcanic activity meeting one or more of these criteria may occur during the week, but may not be included in the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report because we did not receive a report.


Disclaimers

1. The Weekly Volcanic Activity Report is intended to provide timely information about global volcanism on a weekly basis. Consequently, the report is generated rapidly by summarizing volcanic reports from various sources, with little time for fact checking. The accuracy of the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report is dependent upon the quality of the volcanic activity reports we receive. Reports published in the Bulletin of the Global Volcanism Network are monthly, and more carefully reviewed, although all of the volcanoes discussed in the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report are not necessarily reported in the Bulletin. Because of our emphasis on rapid reporting on the web we have avoided diacritical marks. Reports are updated on the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report web page as they are received, therefore information may be included regarding events that occurred before the current report period.

2. Rapidly developing events lead to coverage that is often fragmentary. Volcanoes, their eruptions, and their plumes and associated atmospheric effects are complex phenomena that may require months to years of data analysis in order to create a comprehensive summary and interpretation of events.

3. Preliminary accounts sometimes contain exaggerations and "false alarms," and accordingly, this report may include some events ultimately found to be erroneous or misleading.

4. Many news agencies do not archive the articles they post on the Internet, and therefore the links to some sources may not be active. To obtain information about the cited articles that are no longer available on the Internet contact the source.

5. USGS Disclaimer Statement for this Website:

Information presented on this website is considered public information and may be distributed or copied. Use of appropriate byline/photo/image credit is requested. We strongly recommend that USGS data be acquired directly from a USGS server and not through other sources that may change the data in some way. While USGS makes every effort to provide accurate and complete information, various data such as names, telephone numbers, etc. may change prior to updating. USGS welcomes suggestions on how to improve our home page and correct errors. USGS provides no warranty, expressed or implied, as to the accuracy, reliability or completeness of furnished data.

Some of the documents on this server may contain live references (or pointers) to information created and maintained by other organizations. Please note that USGS does not control and cannot guarantee the relevance, timeliness, or accuracy of these outside materials.

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RSS and CAP Feeds

An RSS (Really Simple Syndication) feed for the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report first made available on 5 March 2008 can be utilized with the aid of various free downloadable readers. The report content of the news feed is identical to the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report minus some features including the header information (latitude and longitude and summit elevation), the Geologic Summary, and a link to the volcano's page from the Global Volcanism Program. Each volcano report includes a link from the volcano's name back to the more complete information in the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report on the Smithsonian website. On 12 March 2009, GeoRSS tags were added so that the latitude and longitude for each volcano could be included with the feed.

At the end of each individual report is a list of the sources used. We would like to emphasize that the World Organization of Volcano Observatories (WOVO) website (http://www.wovo.org/) lists the regional volcano observatories that have the most authoritative data for many of these events.

CAP (Common Alerting Protocol) feeds are XML files specifically formatted for disaster management.


Google Earth Placemarks

A Google Earth network link for the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report was first made available on 1 April 2009. This file can be loaded into the free Google Earth software, and in turn will load placemarks for volcanoes in the current weekly report. Placemark balloons include the volcano name, report date, report text, sources, and links back to the GVP volcano page for that volcano and to the complete Weekly Report for that week.

 Acronyms and Abbreviations

a.s.l. - above sea level

AVO - Alaska Volcano Observatory

AVHRR - Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer

CENAPRED - Centro Nacionale de Prevencion de Desastres (México)

CONRED - Coordinadora Nacional para la Reducción de Desastres

COSPEC - Correlation Spectrometer

CVGHM (formerly VSI) - Center of Volcanology and Geological Hazard Mitigation

CVO - Cascades Volcano Observatory (USGS)

GMS - Geostationary Meteorological Satellite

GOES - Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite

GVO - Goma Volcano Observatory

GVP - Global Volcanism Program (Smithsonian Institution)

HVO - Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (USGS)

ICE - Instituto Costarricense de Electricidad (Costa Rica)

IG - Instituto Geofísico (Ecuador)

IGNS - Institute of Geological and Nuclear Sciences (New Zealand) - now GNS Science

INETER - Instituto Nicaragüense de Estudios Territoriales (Nicaragua)

INGEMMET - Instituto Geológical Minero y Metalúrgico (Peru)

INGEOMINAS - Instituto Colombiano de Geología y Minería (Colombia)

INGV-CT - Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia - Sezione di Catania (Italy)

INSIVUMEH - Instituto Nacional de Sismologia, Vulcanologia, Meteorologia e Hidrologia (Guatemala)

IRD - Institut de Recherche pour le Développement (France)

JMA - Japanese Meteorological Agency

KEMSD - Kamchatkan Experimental and Methodical Seismilogical Department

KVERT - Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team

M - magnitude

METEOSAT - Meteorological Satellite

MEVO - Mount Erebus Volcano Observatory

MODIS - Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer

MVO - Montserrat Volcano Observatory

MWO - Meteorological Watch Office

NEIC - National Earthquake Information Center

NIED - National Research Institute for Earth Science and Disaster Prevention (Japan)

NOAA - National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration

NOTAM - Notice to Airmen

OVDAS - Observatorio Volcanologico de los Andes del Sur (Chile)

OFDA - Office of US Foreign Disaster Assistance

ONEMI - Oficina Nacional de Emergencia - Ministerio del Interior (Chile)

OVPDLF - Observatoire Volcanologique du Piton de la Fournaise (France)

OVSICORI-UNA - Observatorio Vulcanologico y Sismologico de Costa Rica, Universidad Nacional (Costa Rica)

PHIVOLCS - Philippine Institute of Volcanology and Seismology (Philippines)

RSAM - Real-time Seismic Amplitude Measurement

RVO - Rabaul Volcano Observatory

SERNAGEOMIN - Servicio Nacional de Geologia y Mineria (Chile)

SIGMET - Significant Meteorological Information

SNET - Servicio Nacional de Estudios Territoriales (El Salvador)

SVERT - Sakhalin Volcanic Eruption Response Team (Russia)

USAID - US Agency for International Development

USGS - United States Geological Survey

UTC - Coordinated Universal Time

VAAC - Volcanic Ash Advisory Center

VAFTAD - Volcanic Ash Forecast Transport And Dispersion

VDAP - Volcano Disaster Assistance Program (USGS)

VHP - Volcano Hazards Program (USGS)

VRC - Volcano Research Center (Japan)