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Smithsonian / USGS Weekly Volcanic Activity Report

You are currently viewing Archived reports for the week of 20 March-26 March 2019.


















 Activity for the week of 20 March-26 March 2019

The Weekly Volcanic Activity Report is a cooperative project between the Smithsonian's Global Volcanism Program and the US Geological Survey's Volcano Hazards Program. Updated by 2300 UTC every Wednesday, notices of volcanic activity posted on these pages are preliminary and subject to change as events are studied in more detail. This is not a comprehensive list of all of Earth's volcanoes erupting during the week, but rather a summary of activity at volcanoes that meet criteria discussed in detail in the "Criteria and Disclaimers" section. Carefully reviewed, detailed reports on various volcanoes are published monthly in the Bulletin of the Global Volcanism Network.

Name Location Activity
Bezymianny Central Kamchatka (Russia) New
Tengger Caldera Eastern Java (Indonesia) New
Villarrica Chile New

Agung Bali (Indonesia) Ongoing
Aira Kyushu (Japan) Ongoing
Dukono Halmahera (Indonesia) Ongoing
Ebeko Paramushir Island (Russia) Ongoing
Fuego Guatemala Ongoing
Ibu Halmahera (Indonesia) Ongoing
Karymsky Eastern Kamchatka (Russia) Ongoing
Kilauea Hawaiian Islands (USA) Ongoing
Krakatau Indonesia Ongoing
Manam Papua New Guinea Ongoing
Merapi Central Java (Indonesia) Ongoing
Rincon de la Vieja Costa Rica Ongoing
Sheveluch Central Kamchatka (Russia) Ongoing
Suwanosejima Ryukyu Islands (Japan) Ongoing
Turrialba Costa Rica Ongoing


New Activity / Unrest


Volcano index photo  Bezymianny  | Central Kamchatka (Russia)  | 55.972°N, 160.595°E  | Elevation 2882 m

KVERT reported that after a powerful explosive eruption at Bezymianny recorded on 15 March activity was characterized by growth of the W part of the lava dome, strong fumarolic activity, and dome incandescence. The Aviation Color Code was lowered to Yellow (the second lowest level on a four-color scale) on 21 March.

Source: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT)



Volcano index photo  Tengger Caldera  | Eastern Java (Indonesia)  | 7.942°S, 112.95°E  | Elevation 2329 m

PVMBG reported that during 19-26 March ash plumes of variable densities and colors ranging from white to black rose as high as 1.2 km above the crater rim of Tengger Caldera’s Bromo cone. The ash plumes drifted in multiple directions. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-4), and visitors were warned to stay outside of a 1-km radius of the crater.

Source: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG, also known as CVGHM)



Volcano index photo  Villarrica  | Chile  | 39.42°S, 71.93°W  | Elevation 2847 m

On 20 March POVI reported that lava fountains at Villarrica were visible rising almost 50 m above the crater rim. They noted that, despite low seismicity, Strombolian explosions on 24 March ejected material more than 25 m above the crater rim.

Source: Proyecto Observación Villarrica Internet (POVI)



Ongoing Activity


Volcano index photo  Agung  | Bali (Indonesia)  | 8.343°S, 115.508°E  | Elevation 2997 m

PVMBG reported that at 0018 on 21 March an event at Agung was recorded for 1 minute and 47 seconds by the seismic network. Weather conditions prevented visual observations of the summit. The Alert Level remained at 3 (on a scale of 1-4) with the exclusion zone set at a 4-km radius.

Source: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG, also known as CVGHM)



Volcano index photo  Aira  | Kyushu (Japan)  | 31.593°N, 130.657°E  | Elevation 1117 m

JMA reported that during 18-22 March there were two events and one explosion recorded at Minamidake crater (at Aira Caldera’s Sakurajima volcano). Plumes rose at least as high as 1.7 km above the crater rim. Small events occasionally occurred during 22-25 March; crater incandescence was visible at night on 24 March. The Alert Level remained at 3 (on a 5-level scale).

Source: Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA)



Volcano index photo  Dukono  | Halmahera (Indonesia)  | 1.693°N, 127.894°E  | Elevation 1229 m

Based on satellite and wind model data, the Darwin VAAC reported that during 20-22 and 24 March ash plumes from Dukono rose to altitudes of 2.1-2.4 km (7,000-8,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted in multiple directions. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-4), and visitors were warned to remain outside of the 2-km exclusion zone.

Sources: Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC), Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG, also known as CVGHM)



Volcano index photo  Ebeko  | Paramushir Island (Russia)  | 50.686°N, 156.014°E  | Elevation 1103 m

Volcanologists in Severo-Kurilsk (Paramushir Island), about 7 km E of Ebeko, observed explosions during 15, 16-19, and 21 March that sent ash plumes up to 4.5 km (14,800 ft) a.s.l. Ash fell in Severo-Kurilsk during 15-16 and 21 March. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange (the second highest level on a four-color scale).

Source: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT)



Volcano index photo  Fuego  | Guatemala  | 14.473°N, 90.88°W  | Elevation 3763 m

On 22 March INSIVUMEH reported that activity at Fuego had increased during the previous few days. There were 15-20 explosions per hour producing ash plumes that rose as high as 1.3 km above the summit and drifted 20-30 km E, SE, S, SW, and W. Ashfall was reported in communities downwind including La Rochela, Ceylán, San Andrés Osuna, Las Palmas, Siquinalá, and Santa Lucia Cotzumalguapa (23 km SW). Shock waves vibrated residential structures within 20 km. The explosions also caused avalanches of material from the crater that traveled down the Seca (W), Ceniza (SSW), Taniluyá (SW), Trinidad (S), Las Lajas (SE), and Honda ravines. In the evening on 21 March and early morning hours of 22 March lava fountains rose 350 m above the summit.

During 23-26 March explosions occurred at a rate of 15-25 per hour, generating ash plumes that rose as high as 1.2 km and drifted 15-20 km W, S, and SE. Explosions sometimes vibrated nearby residences. Incandescent material was ejected 200-300 m high and caused avalanches of material that traveled down Seca, Taniluyá, Ceniza, Trinidad, Las Lajas, and Honda ravines, sometimes reaching vegetated areas. Ashfall as reported in areas downwind including Panimache I (8 km SW), Morelia (8 km SW), Santa Sofia (12 km SE), La Rochela, and San Andrés Osuna.

Source: Instituto Nacional de Sismologia, Vulcanologia, Meteorologia, e Hidrologia (INSIVUMEH)



Volcano index photo  Ibu  | Halmahera (Indonesia)  | 1.488°N, 127.63°E  | Elevation 1325 m

The Darwin VAAC reported that a minor ash plume from Ibu rose to an altitude of 2.4 km (8,000 ft) a.s.l., drifted about 17 km NE, and dissipated. An ash plume rose to an altitude of 2.1 km (7,000 ft) a.s.l. later that day, and to 2.4 km on 23 March; both plumes drifted E. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-4), and the public was warned to stay at least 2 km away from the active crater, and 3.5 km away on the N side.

Sources: Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC), Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG, also known as CVGHM)



Volcano index photo  Karymsky  | Eastern Kamchatka (Russia)  | 54.049°N, 159.443°E  | Elevation 1513 m

KVERT reported that a thermal anomaly over Karymsky was visible in satellite images on 17 March. The volcano was quiet or obscured by clouds on the other days during 15-22 March. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange (the second highest level on a four-color scale).

Source: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT)



Volcano index photo  Kilauea  | Hawaiian Islands (USA)  | 19.421°N, 155.287°W  | Elevation 1222 m

HVO reported that during the previous several months monitoring data at Kilauea showed relatively low rates of seismicity, deformation, and gas emissions at the summit and East Rift Zone (ERZ) (including the area of the 2018 eruption). As a result, HVO lowered the Volcano Alert Level to Normal and the Aviation Color Code to Green.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)



Volcano index photo  Krakatau  | Indonesia  | 6.102°S, 105.423°E  | Elevation 155 m

PVMBG reported that a total of six explosions at Anak Krakatau were recorded on 18 March, with dense white plumes rising as high as 500 m from the summit. During 18-24 March no other plumes were noted although weather conditions often prevented visual observations. Events were recorded at 0301 and 0305 on 24 March, though ash plumes were not visible. The Alert Level remained at 3 (on a scale of 1-4), and residents were warned to remain outside of the 5-km radius hazard zone from the crater. [Correction: the Alert Level was lowered to 2 on 25 March, and the hazard zone was adjusted to a 2-km radius.]

Source: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG, also known as CVGHM)



Volcano index photo  Manam  | Papua New Guinea  | 4.08°S, 145.037°E  | Elevation 1807 m

The Darwin VAAC reported that during 19-22 March ash plumes from Manam rose to an altitude of 4.6 km (15,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted E and SE based on satellite data and ground-based observations.

Source: Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC)



Volcano index photo  Merapi  | Central Java (Indonesia)  | 7.54°S, 110.446°E  | Elevation 2910 m

PVMBG reported that the slow extrusion of a lava dome in Merapi’s summit crater continued during 17-24 March. By 21 March the lava dome had grown to an estimated size of 472,000 cubic meters based on analyses of drone footage. There were no apparent morphological changes; most of the extruded lava fell into the upper parts of the Gendol River drainage on the SE flank. Block-and-ash flows traveled as far as 1,500 m down the Gendol drainage during 18-19 and 23 March. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-4), and residents were warned to remain outside of the 3-km exclusion zone.

Source: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG, also known as CVGHM)



Volcano index photo  Rincon de la Vieja  | Costa Rica  | 10.83°N, 85.324°W  | Elevation 1916 m

OVSICORI-UNA reported that a small event at Rincón de la Vieja was recorded at 1851 on 19 March.

Source: Observatorio Vulcanologico y Sismologico de Costa Rica-Universidad Nacional (OVSICORI-UNA)



Volcano index photo  Sheveluch  | Central Kamchatka (Russia)  | 56.653°N, 161.36°E  | Elevation 3283 m

KVERT reported that a thermal anomaly over Sheveluch’s lava dome was identified daily in satellite images during 15-22 March. Strong gas-and-steam emissions containing variable amounts of ash rose 3.5-4 km (11,500-13,100 ft) a.s.l. and drifted 105 km E during 15-17 March. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange (the second highest level on a four-color scale).

Source: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT)



Volcano index photo  Suwanosejima  | Ryukyu Islands (Japan)  | 29.638°N, 129.714°E  | Elevation 796 m

JMA reported that crater incandescence at Suwanosejima’s Ontake Crater was visible at night during 15-22 March. Small events were occasionally recorded, generating plumes that rose as high as 600 m above the crater rim. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a 5-level scale).

Source: Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA)



Volcano index photo  Turrialba  | Costa Rica  | 10.025°N, 83.767°W  | Elevation 3340 m

OVSICORI-UNA reported a period of continuous emissions from Turrialba during 20-22 March. The emissions were characterized as white water vapor plumes with periodic pulses of diffuse ash rising 300 m above the vent rim and drifting W and SW. A sulfur odor was noted in Tierra Blanca de Cartago on 22 March. Only water vapor plumes with a low concentration of magmatic gases were visible during 23-26 March.

Source: Observatorio Vulcanologico y Sismologico de Costa Rica-Universidad Nacional (OVSICORI-UNA)



Weekly Reports Archive

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Agung Fourpeaked Lewotobi Sakar
Ahyi Fuego Lewotolo Salak
Aira Fujisan Little Sitkin San Cristobal
Akan Fukutoku-Oka-no-Ba Llaima San Miguel
Alaid Galeras Loihi San Vicente
Alu-Dalafilla Galunggung Lokon-Empung Sangay
Ambae Gamalama Lopevi Sangeang Api
Ambang Gamkonora Machin Santa Ana
Ambrym Gaua Makian Santa Maria
Anatahan Gorely Makushin Sarigan
Antillanca Volcanic Complex Great Sitkin Maly Semyachik Sarychev Peak
Antuco Grimsvotn Manam Saunders
Apoyeque Guagua Pichincha Manda Hararo Semeru
Arenal Guallatiri Marapi Semisopochnoi
Asamayama Guntur Maroa Seulawah Agam
Askja Hachijojima Martin Sheveluch
Asosan Hakoneyama Masaya Shishaldin
Augustine Heard Mauna Loa Simbo
Avachinsky Hekla Mayon Sinabung
Awu Hierro McDonald Islands Sinarka
Axial Seamount Hokkaido-Komagatake Melimoyu Siple
Azul, Cerro Home Reef Merapi Sirung
Azumayama Hood Midagahara Slamet
Bagana Huaynaputina Misti, El Soputan
Balbi Hudson, Cerro Miyakejima Sorikmarapi
Bamus Huila, Nevado del Momotombo Sotara
Banda Api Hunga Tonga-Hunga Ha'apai Monowai Soufriere Hills
Bardarbunga Ibu Montagu Island Soufriere St. Vincent
Barren Island Ijen Moyorodake [Medvezhia] South Sarigan Seamount
Batur Iliamna Mutnovsky Spurr
Bezymianny Iliwerung Myojinsho St. Helens
Bogoslof Inielika Nabro Stromboli
Brava Ioto Negra, Sierra Sulu Range
Bristol Island Iya Negro, Cerro Sumbing
Bulusan Izu-Torishima Nightingale Island Sundoro
Calbuco Jackson Segment Nishinoshima Suretamatai
Callaqui Kaba Nisyros Suwanosejima
Cameroon Kadovar Novarupta Taal
Campi Flegrei del Mar di Sicilia Kambalny NW Rota-1 Tair, Jebel at
Cayambe Kanaga Nyamuragira Takawangha
Cereme Kanlaon Nyiragongo Talang
Chachadake [Tiatia] Karangetang Okataina Tambora
Chaiten Karkar Okmok Tanaga
Chiginagak Karthala Ontakesan Tandikat-Singgalang
Chikurachki Karymsky Oraefajokull Tangkoko-Duasudara
Chiles-Cerro Negro Kasatochi Osorno Tangkuban Parahu
Chillan, Nevados de Katla Pacaya Tara, Batu
Chirinkotan Kavachi Pagan Telica
Chirpoi Kelimutu Paluweh Tenerife
Cleveland Kelut Panarea Tengger Caldera
Colima Kerinci Papandayan Three Sisters
Colo Ketoi Parker Tinakula
Concepcion Kharimkotan Pavlof Tofua
Copahue Kick 'em Jenny Peuet Sague Tokachidake
Cotopaxi Kikai Pinatubo Tolbachik
Cuicocha Kilauea Planchon-Peteroa Toliman
Cumbal Kirishimayama Poas Tongariro
Dabbahu Kizimen Popocatepetl Tungurahua
Dempo Klyuchevskoy Puyehue-Cordon Caulle Turrialba
Descabezado Grande Kolokol Group Rabaul Ubinas
Dieng Volcanic Complex Korovin Raikoke Ulawun
Dukono Koryaksky Ranakah Unknown Source
Ebeko Krakatau Raoul Island Unnamed
Ebulobo Krummel-Garbuna-Welcker Rasshua Unnamed
Egon Kuchinoerabujima Raung Veniaminof
Ekarma Kurikomayama Redoubt Villarrica
Epi Kusatsu-Shiranesan Reventador West Mata
Erebus Kverkfjoll Reykjanes Whakaari/White Island
Erta Ale Lamington Rincon de la Vieja Witori
Etna Lamongan Rinjani Wolf
Etorofu-Yakeyama [Grozny Group] Langila Ritter Island Yasur
Eyjafjallajokull Lanin Rotorua Zaozan [Zaosan]
Fernandina Lascar Ruang Zavodovski
Fogo Lateiki Ruapehu Zhupanovsky
Fonualei Lengai, Ol Doinyo Ruiz, Nevado del Zubair Group
Fournaise, Piton de la Leroboleng Sabancaya
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 News Feeds and Google Placemarks


The RSS (Really Simple Syndication) feed is identical to the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report minus some features including the header information (latitude and longitude and summit elevation), the Geologic Summary, and a link to the volcano's page from the Global Volcanism Program. Each volcano report includes a link from the volcano's name back to the more complete information in the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report on the Smithsonian website.




The CAP (Common Alerting Protocol) feeds are XML files specifically formatted for disaster management. They are similar in content to the RSS feed, but contain no active links.




A Google Earth network link for the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report can be loaded into the free Google Earth software, and in turn will load placemarks for volcanoes in the current weekly report. Placemark balloons include the volcano name, report date, report text, sources, and links back to the GVP volcano page for that volcano and to the complete Weekly Report for that week.

 Criteria & Disclaimers

Criteria

The Weekly Volcanic Activity Report does not necessarily include all volcanic activity that occurred on Earth during the week. More than a dozen volcanoes globally have displayed more-or-less continuous eruptive activity for decades or longer, and such routine activity is typically not reported here. Moreover, Earth's sea-floor volcanism is seldom reported even though in theory it represents the single most prolific source of erupted material. The Weekly Volcanic Activity Report summarizes volcanic activity that meets one or more of the following criteria:

- A volcano observatory raises or lowers the alert level at the volcano.
- A volcanic ash advisory has been released by a volcanic ash advisory center (VAAC) stating that an ash cloud has been produced from the volcano.
- A verifiable news report of new activity or a change in activity at the volcano has been issued.
- Observers have reported a significant change in volcanic activity. Such activity can include, but is not restricted to, pyroclastic flows, lahars, lava flows, dome collapse, or increased unrest.

Volcanoes are included in the "New Activity/Unrest" section of the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report if the activity occurs after at least 3 months of quiescence. Once a volcano is included in the "New Activity/Unrest" section, updates will remain in that section unless the activity continues for more than 1 month without escalating, after which time updates will be listed in the "Continuing Activity" section. Volcanoes are also included in the "New Activity/Unrest" section if the volcano is undergoing a period of relatively high unrest, or increasing unrest. This is commonly equal to Alert Level Orange on a scale of Green, Yellow, Orange, Red, where Red is the highest alert. Or alert level 3 on a scale of 1-4 or 1-5.

It is important to note that volcanic activity meeting one or more of these criteria may occur during the week, but may not be included in the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report because we did not receive a report.


Disclaimers

1. The Weekly Volcanic Activity Report is intended to provide timely information about global volcanism on a weekly basis. Consequently, the report is generated rapidly by summarizing volcanic reports from various sources, with little time for fact checking. The accuracy of the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report is dependent upon the quality of the volcanic activity reports we receive. Reports published in the Bulletin of the Global Volcanism Network are monthly, and more carefully reviewed, although all of the volcanoes discussed in the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report are not necessarily reported in the Bulletin. Because of our emphasis on rapid reporting on the web we have avoided diacritical marks. Reports are updated on the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report web page as they are received, therefore information may be included regarding events that occurred before the current report period.

2. Rapidly developing events lead to coverage that is often fragmentary. Volcanoes, their eruptions, and their plumes and associated atmospheric effects are complex phenomena that may require months to years of data analysis in order to create a comprehensive summary and interpretation of events.

3. Preliminary accounts sometimes contain exaggerations and "false alarms," and accordingly, this report may include some events ultimately found to be erroneous or misleading.

4. Many news agencies do not archive the articles they post on the Internet, and therefore the links to some sources may not be active. To obtain information about the cited articles that are no longer available on the Internet contact the source.

5. USGS Disclaimer Statement for this Website:

Information presented on this website is considered public information and may be distributed or copied. Use of appropriate byline/photo/image credit is requested. We strongly recommend that USGS data be acquired directly from a USGS server and not through other sources that may change the data in some way. While USGS makes every effort to provide accurate and complete information, various data such as names, telephone numbers, etc. may change prior to updating. USGS welcomes suggestions on how to improve our home page and correct errors. USGS provides no warranty, expressed or implied, as to the accuracy, reliability or completeness of furnished data.

Some of the documents on this server may contain live references (or pointers) to information created and maintained by other organizations. Please note that USGS does not control and cannot guarantee the relevance, timeliness, or accuracy of these outside materials.

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RSS and CAP Feeds

An RSS (Really Simple Syndication) feed for the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report first made available on 5 March 2008 can be utilized with the aid of various free downloadable readers. The report content of the news feed is identical to the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report minus some features including the header information (latitude and longitude and summit elevation), the Geologic Summary, and a link to the volcano's page from the Global Volcanism Program. Each volcano report includes a link from the volcano's name back to the more complete information in the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report on the Smithsonian website. On 12 March 2009, GeoRSS tags were added so that the latitude and longitude for each volcano could be included with the feed.

At the end of each individual report is a list of the sources used. We would like to emphasize that the World Organization of Volcano Observatories (WOVO) website (http://www.wovo.org/) lists the regional volcano observatories that have the most authoritative data for many of these events.

CAP (Common Alerting Protocol) feeds are XML files specifically formatted for disaster management.


Google Earth Placemarks

A Google Earth network link for the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report was first made available on 1 April 2009. This file can be loaded into the free Google Earth software, and in turn will load placemarks for volcanoes in the current weekly report. Placemark balloons include the volcano name, report date, report text, sources, and links back to the GVP volcano page for that volcano and to the complete Weekly Report for that week.

 Acronyms and Abbreviations

a.s.l. - above sea level

AVO - Alaska Volcano Observatory

AVHRR - Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer

CENAPRED - Centro Nacionale de Prevencion de Desastres (México)

CONRED - Coordinadora Nacional para la Reducción de Desastres

COSPEC - Correlation Spectrometer

CVGHM (formerly VSI) - Center of Volcanology and Geological Hazard Mitigation

CVO - Cascades Volcano Observatory (USGS)

GMS - Geostationary Meteorological Satellite

GOES - Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite

GVO - Goma Volcano Observatory

GVP - Global Volcanism Program (Smithsonian Institution)

HVO - Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (USGS)

ICE - Instituto Costarricense de Electricidad (Costa Rica)

IG - Instituto Geofísico (Ecuador)

IGNS - Institute of Geological and Nuclear Sciences (New Zealand) - now GNS Science

INETER - Instituto Nicaragüense de Estudios Territoriales (Nicaragua)

INGEMMET - Instituto Geológical Minero y Metalúrgico (Peru)

INGEOMINAS - Instituto Colombiano de Geología y Minería (Colombia)

INGV-CT - Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia - Sezione di Catania (Italy)

INSIVUMEH - Instituto Nacional de Sismologia, Vulcanologia, Meteorologia e Hidrologia (Guatemala)

IRD - Institut de Recherche pour le Développement (France)

JMA - Japanese Meteorological Agency

KEMSD - Kamchatkan Experimental and Methodical Seismilogical Department

KVERT - Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team

M - magnitude

METEOSAT - Meteorological Satellite

MEVO - Mount Erebus Volcano Observatory

MODIS - Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer

MVO - Montserrat Volcano Observatory

MWO - Meteorological Watch Office

NEIC - National Earthquake Information Center

NIED - National Research Institute for Earth Science and Disaster Prevention (Japan)

NOAA - National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration

NOTAM - Notice to Airmen

OVDAS - Observatorio Volcanologico de los Andes del Sur (Chile)

OFDA - Office of US Foreign Disaster Assistance

ONEMI - Oficina Nacional de Emergencia - Ministerio del Interior (Chile)

OVPDLF - Observatoire Volcanologique du Piton de la Fournaise (France)

OVSICORI-UNA - Observatorio Vulcanologico y Sismologico de Costa Rica, Universidad Nacional (Costa Rica)

PHIVOLCS - Philippine Institute of Volcanology and Seismology (Philippines)

RSAM - Real-time Seismic Amplitude Measurement

RVO - Rabaul Volcano Observatory

SERNAGEOMIN - Servicio Nacional de Geologia y Mineria (Chile)

SIGMET - Significant Meteorological Information

SNET - Servicio Nacional de Estudios Territoriales (El Salvador)

SVERT - Sakhalin Volcanic Eruption Response Team (Russia)

USAID - US Agency for International Development

USGS - United States Geological Survey

UTC - Coordinated Universal Time

VAAC - Volcanic Ash Advisory Center

VAFTAD - Volcanic Ash Forecast Transport And Dispersion

VDAP - Volcano Disaster Assistance Program (USGS)

VHP - Volcano Hazards Program (USGS)

VRC - Volcano Research Center (Japan)