Report on Ijen (Indonesia) — March 1991
Bulletin of the Global Volcanism Network, vol. 16, no. 3 (March 1991)
Managing Editor: Lindsay McClelland.
Ijen (Indonesia) Slight increase in crater lake temperature; tremor episodes
Please cite this report as:
Global Volcanism Program, 1991. Report on Ijen (Indonesia). In: McClelland, L. (ed.), Bulletin of the Global Volcanism Network, 16:3. Smithsonian Institution. https://doi.org/10.5479/si.GVP.BGVN199103-263350.
8.058°S, 114.242°E; summit elev. 2769 m
All times are local (unless otherwise noted)
The whitish-green crater lake's temperature was 47°C, slightly increased from the previous week (42°C). Volcanic tremor, recorded since 16 March, had frequencies of 1-2 Hz, and maximum amplitudes that decreased slightly from 1.5 mm to 0.5 mm. The tremor episodes were interpreted as gas bubbles in the crater lake.
Geologic Background. The Ijen volcano complex at the eastern end of Java consists of a group of small stratovolcanoes constructed within the large 20-km-wide Ijen (Kendeng) caldera. The north caldera wall forms a prominent arcuate ridge, but elsewhere the caldera rim is buried by post-caldera volcanoes, including Gunung Merapi, which forms the high point of the complex. Immediately west of the Gunung Merapi stratovolcano is the historically active Kawah Ijen crater, which contains a nearly 1-km-wide, turquoise-colored, acid lake. Picturesque Kawah Ijen is the world's largest highly acidic lake and is the site of a labor-intensive sulfur mining operation in which sulfur-laden baskets are hand-carried from the crater floor. Many other post-caldera cones and craters are located within the caldera or along its rim. The largest concentration of cones forms an E-W zone across the southern side of the caldera. Coffee plantations cover much of the caldera floor, and tourists are drawn to its waterfalls, hot springs, and volcanic scenery.
Information Contacts: W. Modjo, VSI; AP.