Report on Barren Island (India) — September 1991
Bulletin of the Global Volcanism Network, vol. 16, no. 9 (September 1991)
Managing Editor: Lindsay McClelland.
Barren Island (India) Eruption plume on satellite image
Please cite this report as:
Global Volcanism Program, 1991. Report on Barren Island (India). In: McClelland, L (ed.), Bulletin of the Global Volcanism Network, 16:9. Smithsonian Institution. https://doi.org/10.5479/si.GVP.BGVN199109-260010.
12.278°N, 93.858°E; summit elev. 354 m
All times are local (unless otherwise noted)
The eruption was apparently continuing on 17 October, when a NOAA 11 satellite image (at 1354) showed a plume extending ~150 km WNW from a point source at the volcano.
Geologic Background. Barren Island, a possession of India in the Andaman Sea about 135 km NE of Port Blair in the Andaman Islands, is the only historically active volcano along the N-S volcanic arc extending between Sumatra and Burma (Myanmar). It is the emergent summit of a volcano that rises from a depth of about 2250 m. The small, uninhabited 3-km-wide island contains a roughly 2-km-wide caldera with walls 250-350 m high. The caldera, which is open to the sea on the west, was created during a major explosive eruption in the late Pleistocene that produced pyroclastic-flow and -surge deposits. Historical eruptions have changed the morphology of the pyroclastic cone in the center of the caldera, and lava flows that fill much of the caldera floor have reached the sea along the western coast.
Information Contacts: W. Gould, NOAA.