Report on Krakatau (Indonesia) — January 1993
Bulletin of the Global Volcanism Network, vol. 18, no. 1 (January 1993)
Managing Editor: Lindsay McClelland.
Krakatau (Indonesia) Lava flows continue; Strombolian explosions; ash columns to 400 m
Please cite this report as:
Global Volcanism Program, 1993. Report on Krakatau (Indonesia). In: McClelland, L. (ed.), Bulletin of the Global Volcanism Network, 18:1. Smithsonian Institution. https://doi.org/10.5479/si.GVP.BGVN199301-262000.
6.102°S, 105.423°E; summit elev. 813 m
All times are local (unless otherwise noted)
The eruption . . . continued in 1993. The strongest explosive activity occurred on 12 November 1992. Bombs fell to several hundred meters N of the vent and smaller tephra reached the N coast. Lava flowed 1 km to the N coast and entered the sea, extending >100 m beyond the shore. Lava continued to advance in January, but feeding of the flow from the vent may have stopped by mid-February. Strombolian explosions ejected lava fragments, visibly incandescent at night, in early February and ash columns rose 100-400 m. The number of explosion earthquakes varied from 500-2,000/day (figure 4), at intervals of 5 seconds to 5 minutes. Explosions can sometimes be observed from the volcano observatory . . . . Tourists have been advised to remain at least 3 km from the island until further notice.
|Figure 4. Number of daily explosion earthquakes, 10 November 1992 to 7 February 1993. Courtesy of VSI.|
Geologic Background. The renowned volcano Krakatau (frequently misstated as Krakatoa) lies in the Sunda Strait between Java and Sumatra. Collapse of the ancestral Krakatau edifice, perhaps in 416 or 535 CE, formed a 7-km-wide caldera. Remnants of this ancestral volcano are preserved in Verlaten and Lang Islands; subsequently Rakata, Danan, and Perbuwatan volcanoes were formed, coalescing to create the pre-1883 Krakatau Island. Caldera collapse during the catastrophic 1883 eruption destroyed Danan and Perbuwatan, and left only a remnant of Rakata. This eruption, the 2nd largest in Indonesia during historical time, caused more than 36,000 fatalities, most as a result of devastating tsunamis that swept the adjacent coastlines of Sumatra and Java. Pyroclastic surges traveled 40 km across the Sunda Strait and reached the Sumatra coast. After a quiescence of less than a half century, the post-collapse cone of Anak Krakatau (Child of Krakatau) was constructed within the 1883 caldera at a point between the former cones of Danan and Perbuwatan. Anak Krakatau has been the site of frequent eruptions since 1927.
Information Contacts: W. Tjetjep, VSI.