Report on Gamalama (Indonesia) — October 1994
Bulletin of the Global Volcanism Network, vol. 19, no. 10 (October 1994)
Managing Editor: Richard Wunderman.
Gamalama (Indonesia) Explosion sends plume ~300 m above summit
Please cite this report as:
Global Volcanism Program, 1994. Report on Gamalama (Indonesia). In: Wunderman, R (ed.), Bulletin of the Global Volcanism Network, 19:10. Smithsonian Institution. http://dx.doi.org/10.5479/si.GVP.BGVN199410-268060.
0.8°N, 127.33°E; summit elev. 1715 m
All times are local (unless otherwise noted)
An eruption late on 15 October sent a plume ~ 300 m above the summit . . ., according to news reports. No casualties or damage were reported, although some ash fell in several villages on the slopes of the volcano and the explosion shook buildings.
Geologic Background. Gamalama is a near-conical stratovolcano that comprises the entire island of Ternate off the western coast of Halmahera, and is one of Indonesia's most active volcanoes. The island was a major regional center in the Portuguese and Dutch spice trade for several centuries, which contributed to the thorough documentation of Gamalama's historical activity. Three cones, progressively younger to the north, form the summit. Several maars and vents define a rift zone, parallel to the Halmahera island arc, that cuts the volcano. Eruptions, recorded frequently since the 16th century, typically originated from the summit craters, although flank eruptions have occurred in 1763, 1770, 1775, and 1962-63.
Information Contacts: Antara News Agency; Reuters.