Report on Klyuchevskoy (Russia) — October 1994
Bulletin of the Global Volcanism Network, vol. 19, no. 10 (October 1994)
Managing Editor: Richard Wunderman.
Klyuchevskoy (Russia) Eruption sends plume to 15-20 km altitude and produces lava flows
Please cite this report as:
Global Volcanism Program, 1994. Report on Klyuchevskoy (Russia). In: Wunderman, R. (ed.), Bulletin of the Global Volcanism Network, 19:10. Smithsonian Institution. https://doi.org/10.5479/si.GVP.BGVN199410-300260.
56.056°N, 160.642°E; summit elev. 4754 m
All times are local (unless otherwise noted)
Activity had decreased by 4 October, and continued to decline the following week. Continuous tremor after 3 October and into early November had a maximum amplitude of 0.23-0.53 µm, registered 11 km from the volcano. On 5 and 7-9 October the volcano was obscured by clouds, but on 6 October the fumarolic plume from the summit crater rose ~600 m above the rim and was directed NE. Observers in Kliuchi [(30 km NNE)] reported decreased activity during 8-15 October. Gas-and-steam columns rising from two apertures at the summit reached 2,500 m above the crater on 10 October and 800 m on 14 October. Once again during clear weather a gas-and-steam column was seen rising 200 m above the summit crater on 17, 22, and 23 October and to 800-1,500 m on 18-20 October. During 27-29 October the column rose 200-800 m above the summit. The volcano was obscured by clouds from 30 October to 2 November.
Geologic Background. Klyuchevskoy (also spelled Kliuchevskoi) is Kamchatka's highest and most active volcano. Since its origin about 6000 years ago, the beautifully symmetrical, 4835-m-high basaltic stratovolcano has produced frequent moderate-volume explosive and effusive eruptions without major periods of inactivity. It rises above a saddle NE of sharp-peaked Kamen volcano and lies SE of the broad Ushkovsky massif. More than 100 flank eruptions have occurred during the past roughly 3000 years, with most lateral craters and cones occurring along radial fissures between the unconfined NE-to-SE flanks of the conical volcano between 500 m and 3600 m elevation. The morphology of the 700-m-wide summit crater has been frequently modified by historical eruptions, which have been recorded since the late-17th century. Historical eruptions have originated primarily from the summit crater, but have also included numerous major explosive and effusive eruptions from flank craters.
Information Contacts: V. Kirianov, IVGG; AVO.