Report on Krakatau (Indonesia) — August 1999
Bulletin of the Global Volcanism Network, vol. 24, no. 8 (August 1999)
Managing Editor: Richard Wunderman.
Krakatau (Indonesia) Strombolian eruption continues; new seismograph 27 May
Please cite this report as:
Global Volcanism Program, 1999. Report on Krakatau (Indonesia) (Wunderman, R., ed.). Bulletin of the Global Volcanism Network, 24:8. Smithsonian Institution. https://doi.org/10.5479/si.GVP.BGVN199908-262000.
6.102°S, 105.423°E; summit elev. 155 m
All times are local (unless otherwise noted)
The Strombolian eruption of Anak Krakatau continued during May-August. White-gray ash was emitted in plumes up to 600 m above the summit. Detonations were accompanied by the ejection of incandescent material. A new seismograph was installed on 27 May, replacing one destroyed by falling lava bombs in April (BGVN 24:05). During many weeks of May and June thousands of explosions were recorded on seismographs. An earthquake of intensity MM II was recorded on 10 June and another of the same intensity occurred during the week ending 16 August. On several days during the reporting period the volcano could not be seen because of thick haze.
Geologic Background. The renowned volcano Krakatau (frequently misstated as Krakatoa) lies in the Sunda Strait between Java and Sumatra. Collapse of the ancestral Krakatau edifice, perhaps in 416 or 535 CE, formed a 7-km-wide caldera. Remnants of this ancestral volcano are preserved in Verlaten and Lang Islands; subsequently Rakata, Danan, and Perbuwatan volcanoes were formed, coalescing to create the pre-1883 Krakatau Island. Caldera collapse during the catastrophic 1883 eruption destroyed Danan and Perbuwatan, and left only a remnant of Rakata. This eruption, the 2nd largest in Indonesia during historical time, caused more than 36,000 fatalities, most as a result of devastating tsunamis that swept the adjacent coastlines of Sumatra and Java. Pyroclastic surges traveled 40 km across the Sunda Strait and reached the Sumatra coast. After a quiescence of less than a half century, the post-collapse cone of Anak Krakatau (Child of Krakatau) was constructed within the 1883 caldera at a point between the former cones of Danan and Perbuwatan. Anak Krakatau has been the site of frequent eruptions since 1927.
Information Contacts: Volcanological Survey of Indonesia (VSI), Jalan Diponegoro No. 57, Bandung 40122, Indonesia (URL: http://www.vsi.esdm.go.id/).