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Report on Klyuchevskoy (Russia) — June 2002

Bulletin of the Global Volcanism Network, vol. 27, no. 6 (June 2002)
Managing Editor: Richard Wunderman.

Klyuchevskoy (Russia) Increased seismicity prompts KVERT to raise hazard status to Yellow

Please cite this report as:

Global Volcanism Program, 2002. Report on Klyuchevskoy (Russia). In: Wunderman, R. (ed.), Bulletin of the Global Volcanism Network, 27:6. Smithsonian Institution. https://doi.org/10.5479/si.GVP.BGVN200206-300260.

Volcano Profile |  Complete Bulletin


Klyuchevskoy

Russia

56.056°N, 160.642°E; summit elev. 4754 m

All times are local (unless otherwise noted)


During mid-September 2001 through at least mid-June 2002 activity at Kliuchevskoi was characterized by brief periods of increased seismicity and minor surface activity. Earthquakes up to M 3 occurred (table 3) along with weak spasmodic tremor with a maximum amplitude up to 1.5 x 10-6 m/s (table 4). Gas-and-steam plumes often accompanied the increased seismicity and were visible reaching up to 2.0 km above the crater (table 5).

Table 3. Seismicity at Kliuchevskoi during mid-September 2001 through mid-June 2002. Courtesy KVERT.

Date Event Magnitude
13 Sep 2001 Two earthquakes M ~2 and ~1.7
01 Oct-02 Oct 2001 Eleven earthquakes five M ~2, six ~1.7
18 Oct 2001 Series of large earthquakes within the edifice --
26 Oct-09 Nov 2001 Series of earthquakes within the edifice and ~30 km depth --
13 Nov 2001 Swarm of shallow earthquakes ~M 3
13 Nov-15 Nov 2001 150+ earthquakes M 1.7
07 Apr 2002 Series of shallow earthquakes began M 2.3
24 May-31 May 2002 Weak earthquakes at a depth of ~30 km --
31 May-07 Jun 2002 ~20 earthquakes/day at a depth of ~30 km M 2.3
11 Jun 2002 ~30 min series of shallow earthquakes M 2.8
07 Jun-14 Jun 2002 22-48 earthquakes/day at a depth of ~30 km --

Table 4. Tremor recorded at Kliuchevskoi during mid-September through mid-June 2002. Courtesy KVERT.

Date Event Magnitude/amplitude (µm/s)
20 Sep 2001 Volcanic tremor 0.15
21 Sep-22 Sep 2001 Volcanic tremor 0.23-0.21
23 Sep 2001 Volcanic tremor 0.28
24 Sep 2001 Volcanic tremor 0.4
25 Sep-26 Sep 2001 Volcanic tremor 0.23-0.27
27 Sep-29 Sep 2001 Weak, continuous volcanic tremor 0.22-0.32
01 Oct 2001 Intermittent weak spasmodic volcanic tremor 0.19
02 Oct-04 Oct 2001 Intermittent weak spasmodic volcanic tremor 0.30
05 Oct 2001 Continuous, spasmodic tremor 0.30
06 Oct 2001 Continuous, spasmodic tremor 0.18
09 Oct 2001 Continuous, spasmodic tremor 0.26
10 Oct 2001 Continuous, spasmodic tremor 0.51
11 Oct 2001 Continuous, spasmodic tremor 0.47
12 Oct 2001 Continuous, spasmodic tremor 0.51
13 Oct 2001 Continuous, spasmodic tremor 0.54
14 Oct 2001 Volcanic tremor 0.13
15 Oct-17 Oct 2001 Volcanic tremor 0.15-0.17
Nov 2001 Episodes of weak volcanic tremor --
Apr-May 2002 Weak volcanic tremor --
30 May 2002 Volcanic tremor 1.5

Table 5. Plumes visible at Kliuchevskoi during 13 September 2001 to 20 June 2002. Plumes were visible from Klyuchi town unless noted otherwise. Heights are above the crater. Courtesy KVERT.

Date Time Plume details
13, 17, 19-20 Sep 2001 -- Gas-and-steam plumes rose 50-100 m.
19 Sep 2001 -- Gas-and-steam plume rose 1.0 km and extended 20 km to the S.
23 Sep 2001 -- Gas-and-steam plume rose 100 m.
24 Sep 2001 1828 Possible gas-and-steam plume observed in satellite image.
01 Oct 2001 0810 Gas-and-steam plume up to 1.0 km extending 30 km to the NW.
01 Oct 2001 1150 Gas-and-steam plume up to 2.0 km extending 15 km to the NW.
01 Oct 2001 1400 Gas-and-steam plume up to 1.5-2.0 km extending 10 km to the W.
01 Oct 2001 1730 Gas-and-steam plume up to 800 m extending 5 km to the S visible from Kozyurevsk.
02 Oct 2001 ~0830 Gas-and-steam plume up to 300 m extending 3 km to the S visible from Kozyurevsk and Klyuchi.
05 Oct 2001 0850 Gas-and-steam plume rose 300 m and extended 3 km to the S visible from Kozyurevsk.
05 Oct 2001 1200 Gas-and-steam plume rose 100 m.
10 Oct 2001 0815 Gas-and-steam plume rose 500 m and extended 5 km to the S.
12, 14, 16, 27-29 Oct 2001 -- Gas-and-steam plumes rose 50-100 m.
30 Oct 2001 -- Gas-and-steam plume rose 700 m and extended 5 km to the SE.
31 Oct 2001 -- Gas-and-steam plume rose 50-100 m and extended 5 km to the SE.
01 Nov 2001 -- Gas-and-steam plume rose 50-100 m.
02 Nov 2001 -- Gas-and-steam plume rose 50-200 m and extended 3 km to the SE.
06 Nov 2001 -- Gas-and-steam plume rose 50-200 m and extended 20 km to the NE.
08 Nov 2001 -- Gas-and-steam plume rose 50-200 m.
09 Nov 2001 -- Gas-and-steam plume rose 600 m.
11-13, 18 Nov 2001 -- Gas-and-steam plume rose 50-100 m.
19 Nov 2001 -- Gas-and-steam plume rose 700 m and extended 10 km to the SE.
21 Nov 2001 -- Gas-and-steam plume rose 500 m and extended to the SW.
09 Apr 2002 2038 Explosion sent a gas-and-steam plume with possible ash to 1.0 km.
06, 09-10 Apr; 24, 27 May 2002 -- Gas-and-steam plume rose 100 m.
31 May; 1-3, 6, 9 15-16, 20 Jun 2002 -- Gas-and-steam plume rose 100-300 m.

On 13 November a swarm of shallow M 3 earthquakes caused the Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT) to increase the Alert Level from Green to Yellow. According to a pilot's report, at 1315 on 19 November powerful fumarolic activity was observed. Seismicity decreased during the following days and on 23 November KVERT decreased the Color Code to Green. Seismicity remained at or near background levels with only slight increases in activity until 31 May when a series of earthquakes (up to M 2.3) was recorded in the volcano's edifice. As a result, the Color Code was increased to Yellow.

During 31 May-7 June ~20 earthquakes occurred daily at a depth of ~30 km (table 3). Overflight observations on 9 June indicated fresh ash on the volcano's slopes. The deposits were not accompanied by visually or seismically detected explosions. At the end of the report period, seismicity was slightly above background with a small gas-and-steam plume visible from nearby villages.

Geologic Background. Klyuchevskoy (also spelled Kliuchevskoi) is Kamchatka's highest and most active volcano. Since its origin about 6000 years ago, the beautifully symmetrical, 4835-m-high basaltic stratovolcano has produced frequent moderate-volume explosive and effusive eruptions without major periods of inactivity. It rises above a saddle NE of sharp-peaked Kamen volcano and lies SE of the broad Ushkovsky massif. More than 100 flank eruptions have occurred during the past roughly 3000 years, with most lateral craters and cones occurring along radial fissures between the unconfined NE-to-SE flanks of the conical volcano between 500 m and 3600 m elevation. The morphology of the 700-m-wide summit crater has been frequently modified by historical eruptions, which have been recorded since the late-17th century. Historical eruptions have originated primarily from the summit crater, but have also included numerous major explosive and effusive eruptions from flank craters.

Information Contacts: Olga Chubarova, Kamchatka Volcanic Eruptions Response Team (KVERT), Institute of Volcanic Geology and Geochemistry, Piip Ave. 9, Petropavlovsk-Kamchatsky, 683006, Russia; Tom Miller, Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO), a cooperative program of a) U.S. Geological Survey, 4200 University Drive, Anchorage, AK 99508-4667, USA (URL: http://www.avo.alaska.edu/), b) Geophysical Institute, University of Alaska, PO Box 757320, Fairbanks, AK 99775-7320, USA, and c) Alaska Division of Geological and Geophysical Surveys, 794 University Ave., Suite 200, Fairbanks, AK 99709, USA.