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Report on Klyuchevskoy (Russia) — July 2003

Bulletin of the Global Volcanism Network, vol. 28, no. 7 (July 2003)
Managing Editor: Edward Venzke.

Klyuchevskoy (Russia) Gas-and-steam plumes June-August with occassional ash plumes

Please cite this report as:

Global Volcanism Program, 2003. Report on Klyuchevskoy (Russia). In: Venzke, E (ed.), Bulletin of the Global Volcanism Network, 28:7. Smithsonian Institution. https://doi.org/10.5479/si.GVP.BGVN200307-300260.

Volcano Profile |  Complete Bulletin


Klyuchevskoy

Russia

56.056°N, 160.642°E; summit elev. 4754 m

All times are local (unless otherwise noted)


Eruptions continued at Kliuchevskoi during late 2002 through mid-2003, with typical plume heights estimated at several hundred meters and occasionally reaching ~2 km above the volcano (eg., early July and August 2003). Above-background seismicity prevailed during most or all the reporting interval.

The volcano (also spelled Klyuchevskoy) was last reported on in BGVN 28:02, and vol. 27, no. 11, issues discussing events through 4 March 2003. This report relies heavily on tabled data to convey observations from as far back as 3 December 2002, providing some further details during the 3 December-4 March 2003 interval of overlap with the earlier reports. The source reports came from the Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT) and were communicated via the Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO). Table 9 summarizes recent plume observations, while table 10 summarizes recent earthquake and intermittent spasmodic volcanic tremor, basically above-background seismicity affiliated with ongoing eruptive unrest.

Table 9. Plumes visible at Kliuchevskoi during December 2002 through mid-April 2003. Courtesy KVERT.

Date Plume details
30 Nov-2 and 4 Dec 2002 Gas-and-steam plumes rose 100-400 m above crater and extended 10 km SE, E, W, and N.
03 Dec 2002 Gas-and-steam plumes rose ~1,300 m above crater and extended N and NE (NNE ~15 km from Russian satellite data).
05, 09, 12 Dec 2002 Gas-and-steam plumes rose ~100 m above crater and extended 3-10 km E and SE.
10-11 Dec 2002 Gas-and-steam plumes rose ~1,500 m above crater and extended N and NE.
13-16, 18 Dec 2002 Gas-and-steam plumes rose ~100-800 m above crater and extended 5-10 km E and SE.
17, 19 Dec 2002 Gas-and-steam plumes rose ~1,000-1,500 m above crater and extended 10 km E.
19, 21, 23 Dec 2002 Gas-and-steam plumes rose ~1,000-2,000 m above crater and extended to E, S, and N.
24 Dec 2002 (0100 UTC) Gas-and-ash explosion rose ~4,000 m above crater and plume extended WSW.
04 Jan 2003 (2125 UTC) Gas-and-steam plume rose ~1,000 m above crater and extended 20 km NE.
05, 07, 09 Jan 2003 Gas-and-steam plumes rose 10 m above crater.
08 Jan 2003 Gas-and-steam plumes rose 1,000 m above crater.
11-13, 15 Jan 2003 Gas-and-steam plumes rose 50-300 m above crater (very narrow plume extended 30-50 km NNE from US satellite data).
24, 27 Jan 2003 Gas-and-steam plumes rose 1,000 m above crater and extended 10 km NE (24 Jan) and SE (27 Jan).
25-26, 28-29 Jan 2003 Gas-and-steam plumes rose 100-300 m above crater.
01-03 Feb 2003 Gas-and-steam plumes rose 100-300 m above crater (extended 30 km NNE from Russian satellite data).
04 Feb 2003 Gas-and-steam plumes rose 1,300 m above crater and extended 10 km NE.
09 Feb 2003 Gas-and-steam plumes rose 1,500 m above crater and extended 10 km N.
10 Feb 2003 Narrow gas-and-steam plume extending 25 km N.
11, 13, 18-19 Feb 2003 Gas-and-steam plumes rose 50 m above crater.
15-17 Feb 2003 Gas-and-steam plumes rose 1,000 m above crater.
22-26 Feb 2003 Gas-and-steam plumes rose 200 m above crater.
23 Feb 2003 Gray sector (perhaps ash deposits) showed up on MODIS satellite data from Russia on the SE part of summit.
05 Mar 2003 Gas-and-steam plumes rose 300 m above crater.
10-13 Mar 2003 Gas-and-steam plumes rose 50 m above crater.
16 Mar 2003 Gas-and-steam plumes extended 25-40 km W (from US and Russian satellite data).
18-19 Mar 2003 Gas-and-steam plumes rose 700-1,500 m above crater (extended less than 30 km W on 19 Mar, from US and Russian satellite data).
21-22 and 24-25 Mar 2003 Gas-and-steam plumes rose up to 300-1,000 m above crater and and extended 5-30 km in all directions (extended 30 km NNW on 21 Mar and 100 km NNE on 24 Mar, from US and Russian satellite data).
22 Mar 2003 Gas-and-steam explosions with ash-poor plumes that rose up to 200 m above the crater.
28-30 Mar, 02 Apr 2003 Gas-and-steam plumes rose up to 50-300 m above crater and extended in all directions 5-20 km (10 km NW on 28 Mar, from US and Russian satellite data).
05 Apr 2003 Gas-and-steam plumes rose up to 300 m above crater and extended 10 km E.
07 Apr 2003 Weak fumarolic activity observed.
15-16 Apr 2003 Series of ash plumes rose up to 300 m above crater and extended 10 km E.

Table 10. Earthquakes and intermittent spasmodic volcanic tremor registered at Kliuchevskoi during December 2002 through mid-April 2003. Courtesy of KVERT.

Date Earthquakes per day (~30 km depth) Intermittent tremor (in terms of geophone velocity)
28 Nov-01 Dec 2002 8-13 ~0.8 x 10-6 m/s.
02-04 Dec 2002 24-33 ~0.8 x 10-6 m/s.
05-12 Dec 2002 12-24 ~0.5-0.7 x 10-6 m/s.
13-19 Dec 2002 6-12 0.5-0.7 x 10-6 m/s.
19-25 Dec 2002 6-9 ~0.6-0.7 x 10-6 m/s.
24 Dec 2002 -- Gas-and-ash explosion at 0010 UTC.
03-04 Jan 2003 9, 10 ~0.5-0.7 x 10-6 m/s.
05-09 Jan 2003 10-13; one M 1.75 earthquake Increased from 0.55 x 10-6 m/s on 5-7 Jan to 0.7 x 10-6 m/s on 8 Jan.
10-12 Jan 2003 12-18 0.4-0.75 x 10-6 m/s.
13-15 Jan 2003 33-35 0.4-0.75 x 10-6 m/s.
16-23 Jan 2003 -- 0.4-0.6 x 10-6 m/s.
16-19 Jan 2003 Increased from 44 to 90 --
20-22 Jan 2003 Gradually decreased from 35 to 21 --
24-31 Jan 2003 10-22; 18 M 1.25 earthquakes 0.3-0.5 x 10-6 m/s.
01-06 Feb 2003 16-39; 15 M 2.0-2.2 earthquakes 0.4-0.6 x 10-6 m/s.
01 Feb 2003 -- 1.26 x 10-6 m/s from 0311 to 2400 UTC.
06-12 Feb 2003 17-30; 17 M 2.0-2.1 earthquakes 0.5-0.7 x 10-6 m/s.
13-20 Feb 2003 14-81; six M 2.0-2.2 earthquakes 0.4-0.7 x 10-6 m/s (on 14 Feb, continuous tremor increased to 0.9 x 10-6 m/s).
20-27 Feb 2003 10-14; 16 M 2.0-2.2 earthquakes 0.4-0.6 x 10-6 m/s (from 1140 UTC 26 Feb, continuous tremor increased to 0.95 x 10-6 m/s).
28 Feb-06 Mar 2003 5-11; three M 2.0-2.2 earthquakes 0.5-0.8 x 10-6 m/s.
06-13 Mar 2003 6-11; 12 M 2.0-2.2 earthquakes 0.5-0.8 x 10-6 m/s (6-9 Mar)
10-13 Mar 2003 -- 1.1-1.3 x 10-6 m/s.
13-20 Mar 2003 7-9; seven M 2.0-2.1 earthquakes 0.5-1.5 x 10-6 m/s.
14 Mar 2003 -- 1.5 x 10-6 m/s.
20-24 Mar 2003 6-9 --
20-26 Mar 2003 26 on 25 Mar, 41 on 26 Mar; 16 M 2.0-2.2 earthquakes 1.0-2.8 x 10-6 m/s.
28 Mar-03 Apr 2003 24-63 0.7-1.4 x 10-6 m/s.
04-10 Apr 2003 10-15; 14 M 2.0-2.2 earthquakes 1.5-3.7 x 10-6 m/s.
15 Apr 2003 ~70 Up to 4.0 x 10-6 m/s.

Unrest continued during June 2003. Seismicity was above background and continuous spasmodic volcanic tremor tended to increase slowly and consistently. Earthquakes, both at 30 km and shallow depths, continued to register. The character of seismicity also indicated that weak gas-ash explosions possibly occurred. Table 11 summarizes thermal observations.

Table 11. Kliuchevskoi thermal anomalies and plumes observed via Russian and United States satellites, 2 June-11 August 2003. Courtesy of KVERT.

Date Thermal Anomaly (pixels) Comments
02 Jun 2003 -- Gas-and-steam plume rose 400 m above volcano.
03 Jun 2003 3 --
06-07 Jun 2003 -- Ash-poor plume extending S 30-80 km; explosions sent ash-gas plumes to 50-500 m above volcano.
07-08 Jun 2003 weak --
09 Jun 2003 -- Ash on NNE flank.
13, 16, 19 Jun 2003 1-4 Four-pixel anomaly with max temp of 46°C in a background of -1°C; ash-poor plumes 50-500 m above volcano.
23 Jun 2003 3 Possible ash deposits on SE flank; gas-and-steam plumes to 50-700 m above volcano.
28 Jun, 02 Jul 2003 3 Ash-poor plumes to 100 m above volcano); separate and continuous ash plumes to 1,000 m above volcano; plumes extended to E.
04-06 Jul 2003 1-2 Gas-and-steam with ash-poor plume extending 100 km to ESE; separate ash explosions to 2,000 m above volcano.
15-16 Jul 2003 1-2 Separate or series ash explosions to 1,000 m above volcano; strong ash explosions to 2,000 m above volcano.
20-24 Jul 2003 1-4 Gas-and-steam plumes rose from 100-1,000 m above volcano and extended 15 km to SW.
27-29 Jul,01 Aug 2003 1-4 Temperature from 12 to 50°C in a background of -5 to 20°C; gas and steam plumes rose 500-700 m and extended 5 km SW.
01, 04-07 Aug 2003 2-6 Gas-and-steam plumes rose 800-2,000 m above volcano and extended to NW and, later, S.
09, 11 Aug 2003 2-3 --

Geologic Background. Klyuchevskoy (also spelled Kliuchevskoi) is Kamchatka's highest and most active volcano. Since its origin about 6000 years ago, the beautifully symmetrical, 4835-m-high basaltic stratovolcano has produced frequent moderate-volume explosive and effusive eruptions without major periods of inactivity. It rises above a saddle NE of sharp-peaked Kamen volcano and lies SE of the broad Ushkovsky massif. More than 100 flank eruptions have occurred during the past roughly 3000 years, with most lateral craters and cones occurring along radial fissures between the unconfined NE-to-SE flanks of the conical volcano between 500 m and 3600 m elevation. The morphology of the 700-m-wide summit crater has been frequently modified by historical eruptions, which have been recorded since the late-17th century. Historical eruptions have originated primarily from the summit crater, but have also included numerous major explosive and effusive eruptions from flank craters.

Information Contacts: Olga Girina, Kamchatka Volcanic Eruptions Response Team (KVERT), a cooperative program of the Institute of Volcanic Geology and Geochemistry, Far East Division, Russian Academy of Sciences, Piip Ave. 9, Petropavlovsk-Kamchatsky, 683006, Russia, the Kamchatka Experimental and Methodical Seismological Department (KEMSD), GS RAS (Russia), and the Alaska Volcano Observatory (USA); Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO), a cooperative program of the U.S. Geological Survey, 4200 University Drive, Anchorage, AK 99508-4667, USA (URL: http://www.avo.alaska.edu/), the Geophysical Institute, University of Alaska, PO Box 757320, Fairbanks, AK 99775-7320, USA, and the Alaska Division of Geological and Geophysical Surveys, 794 University Ave., Suite 200, Fairbanks, AK 99709, USA.