Report on Krakatau (Indonesia) — October 2003
Bulletin of the Global Volcanism Network, vol. 28, no. 10 (October 2003)
Managing Editor: Edward Venzke.
Krakatau (Indonesia) Increased volcanic seismicity in August
Please cite this report as:
Global Volcanism Program, 2003. Report on Krakatau (Indonesia) (Venzke, E., ed.). Bulletin of the Global Volcanism Network, 28:10. Smithsonian Institution.
6.102°S, 105.423°E; summit elev. 155 m
All times are local (unless otherwise noted)
A report of activity at Krakatau for the period 18-24 August was provided by the Volcanological Survey of Indonesia. There was increase in volcanic earthquakes during this time, while tectonic earthquakes decreased. No visual observations were made due to foggy weather. Seismicity consisted of 12 deep volcanic earthquakes, 56 shallow volcanic earthquakes, and three tectonic events. The hazard status was at Alert Level 2 (on a scale of 1-4).
Geologic Background. The renowned volcano Krakatau (frequently misstated as Krakatoa) lies in the Sunda Strait between Java and Sumatra. Collapse of the ancestral Krakatau edifice, perhaps in 416 or 535 CE, formed a 7-km-wide caldera. Remnants of this ancestral volcano are preserved in Verlaten and Lang Islands; subsequently Rakata, Danan, and Perbuwatan volcanoes were formed, coalescing to create the pre-1883 Krakatau Island. Caldera collapse during the catastrophic 1883 eruption destroyed Danan and Perbuwatan, and left only a remnant of Rakata. This eruption, the 2nd largest in Indonesia during historical time, caused more than 36,000 fatalities, most as a result of devastating tsunamis that swept the adjacent coastlines of Sumatra and Java. Pyroclastic surges traveled 40 km across the Sunda Strait and reached the Sumatra coast. After a quiescence of less than a half century, the post-collapse cone of Anak Krakatau (Child of Krakatau) was constructed within the 1883 caldera at a point between the former cones of Danan and Perbuwatan. Anak Krakatau has been the site of frequent eruptions since 1927.
Information Contacts: Dali Ahmad, Hetty Triastuty, and Nia Haerani, Volcanological Survey of Indonesia (VSI), Jalan Diponegoro No. 57, Bandung 40122, Indonesia (URL: http://www.vsi.esdm.go.id/).