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Report on Krakatau (Indonesia) — August 2004

Bulletin of the Global Volcanism Network, vol. 29, no. 8 (August 2004)
Managing Editor: Richard Wunderman.

Krakatau (Indonesia) Brief period of increased activity in early July

Please cite this report as:

Global Volcanism Program, 2004. Report on Krakatau (Indonesia). In: Wunderman, R. (ed.), Bulletin of the Global Volcanism Network, 29:8. Smithsonian Institution. https://doi.org/10.5479/si.GVP.BGVN200408-262000.

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Krakatau

Indonesia

6.102°S, 105.423°E; summit elev. 813 m

All times are local (unless otherwise noted)


Intense activity occurred at Anak Krakatau beginning on 4 July 2004, when gas and steam emissions increased. The number of volcanic earthquakes also increased on 5 July to between 1 and 4 events per day, then abruptly rose to as high as 58 events/days during the week of 12-18 July before dropping again to 2-17 daily events (table 5). Based on the increased activity, the hazard status was upgraded to Alert Level II (yellow) on 16 July; visitors were not allowed to approach the summit or crater. Seismicity recorded at the Kalianda station after 18 July through 15 August was variable, but did not exhibit the high numbers recorded in the first half of July.

Table 5. Seismicity at Krakatau, 4 July-15 August 2004. Courtesy of DVGHM.

Date Deep volcanic (A-type) Shallow volcanic (B-type) Local Tectonic
04 Jul-11 Jul 2004 77 56 3
12 Jul-18 Jul 2004 113 51 8
19 Jul-25 Jul 2004 22 5 4
26 Jul-01 Aug 2004 36 12 21
02 Aug-08 Aug 2004 45 42 65
09 Aug-15 Aug 2004 10 14 8

Geologic Background. The renowned volcano Krakatau (frequently misstated as Krakatoa) lies in the Sunda Strait between Java and Sumatra. Collapse of the ancestral Krakatau edifice, perhaps in 416 or 535 CE, formed a 7-km-wide caldera. Remnants of this ancestral volcano are preserved in Verlaten and Lang Islands; subsequently Rakata, Danan, and Perbuwatan volcanoes were formed, coalescing to create the pre-1883 Krakatau Island. Caldera collapse during the catastrophic 1883 eruption destroyed Danan and Perbuwatan, and left only a remnant of Rakata. This eruption, the 2nd largest in Indonesia during historical time, caused more than 36,000 fatalities, most as a result of devastating tsunamis that swept the adjacent coastlines of Sumatra and Java. Pyroclastic surges traveled 40 km across the Sunda Strait and reached the Sumatra coast. After a quiescence of less than a half century, the post-collapse cone of Anak Krakatau (Child of Krakatau) was constructed within the 1883 caldera at a point between the former cones of Danan and Perbuwatan. Anak Krakatau has been the site of frequent eruptions since 1927.

Information Contacts: Dali Ahmad, Hetty Triastuty, Nia Haerani, and Sri Kisyati, Directorate of Volcanology and Geological Hazard Mitigation, Jalan Diponegoro No. 57, Bandung 40122, Indonesia, URL: http://www.vsi.esdm.go.id/).