Report on Tengger Caldera (Indonesia) — July 1989
Scientific Event Alert Network Bulletin, vol. 14, no. 7 (July 1989)
Managing Editor: Lindsay McClelland.
Tengger Caldera (Indonesia) Weak white gas emission
Please cite this report as:
Global Volcanism Program, 1989. Report on Tengger Caldera (Indonesia). In: McClelland, L (ed.), Scientific Event Alert Network Bulletin, 14:7. Smithsonian Institution. http://dx.doi.org/10.5479/si.GVP.SEAN198907-263310.
7.942°S, 112.95°E; summit elev. 2329 m
All times are local (unless otherwise noted)
Normal activity continued . . . in July, with weak white fumes rising 30-60 m above the summit. A total of 449 gas emission earthquakes were recorded.
Geologic Background. The 16-km-wide Tengger caldera is located at the northern end of a volcanic massif extending from Semeru volcano. The massive volcanic complex dates back to about 820,000 years ago and consists of five overlapping stratovolcanoes, each truncated by a caldera. Lava domes, pyroclastic cones, and a maar occupy the flanks of the massif. The Ngadisari caldera at the NE end of the complex formed about 150,000 years ago and is now drained through the Sapikerep valley. The most recent of the calderas is the 9 x 10 km wide Sandsea caldera at the SW end of the complex, which formed incrementally during the late Pleistocene and early Holocene. An overlapping cluster of post-caldera cones was constructed on the floor of the Sandsea caldera within the past several thousand years. The youngest of these is Bromo, one of Java's most active and most frequently visited volcanoes.
Information Contacts: VSI.