Report on Krakatau (Indonesia) — 7 November-13 November 2018
Smithsonian / US Geological Survey Weekly Volcanic Activity Report, 7 November-13 November 2018
Managing Editor: Sally Kuhn Sennert
Please cite this report as:
Global Volcanism Program, 2018. Report on Krakatau (Indonesia). In: Sennert, S K (ed.), Weekly Volcanic Activity Report, 7 November-13 November 2018. Smithsonian Institution and US Geological Survey.
6.102°S, 105.423°E; summit elev. 813 m
All times are local (unless otherwise noted)
PVMBG reported that four events at Anak Krakatau occurred between 1620 and 1710 on 9 November. Each event lasted for 42-55 seconds, based on the seismic data, and produced ash plumes that rose 300-500 m above the crater rim and drifted N. An event at 0939 on 10 November generated an ash plume that rose 500 m and drifted N. There were 10 events recorded during 1029-1656 on 12 November, each lasting 38-117 seconds, and producing ash plumes that rose 200-700 m and drifted N. Four events were recorded during 0546-0840 on 13 November, each lasting 44-175 seconds, and producing ash plumes that rose as high as 800 m. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-4); residents and visitors were warned not to approach the volcano within 2 km of the crater.
Geologic Background. The renowned volcano Krakatau (frequently misstated as Krakatoa) lies in the Sunda Strait between Java and Sumatra. Collapse of the ancestral Krakatau edifice, perhaps in 416 or 535 CE, formed a 7-km-wide caldera. Remnants of this ancestral volcano are preserved in Verlaten and Lang Islands; subsequently Rakata, Danan, and Perbuwatan volcanoes were formed, coalescing to create the pre-1883 Krakatau Island. Caldera collapse during the catastrophic 1883 eruption destroyed Danan and Perbuwatan, and left only a remnant of Rakata. This eruption, the 2nd largest in Indonesia during historical time, caused more than 36,000 fatalities, most as a result of devastating tsunamis that swept the adjacent coastlines of Sumatra and Java. Pyroclastic surges traveled 40 km across the Sunda Strait and reached the Sumatra coast. After a quiescence of less than a half century, the post-collapse cone of Anak Krakatau (Child of Krakatau) was constructed within the 1883 caldera at a point between the former cones of Danan and Perbuwatan. Anak Krakatau has been the site of frequent eruptions since 1927.