Calatrava Volcanic Field

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  • Country
  • Volcanic Region
  • Primary Volcano Type
  • Last Known Eruption
  • 38.87°N
  • 4.02°W

  • 1117 m
    3664 ft

  • 210040
  • Latitude
  • Longitude

  • Summit
    Elevation

  • Volcano
    Number

The Global Volcanism Program has no activity reports for Calatrava Volcanic Field.

The Global Volcanism Program has no Weekly Reports available for Calatrava Volcanic Field.

The Global Volcanism Program has no Bulletin Reports available for Calatrava Volcanic Field.

Basic Data

Volcano Number

Last Known Eruption

Elevation

Latitude
Longitude
210040

3600 BCE

1117 m / 3664 ft

38.87°N
4.02°W

Volcano Types

Pyroclastic cone(s)
Maar(s)
Lava dome(s)

Rock Types

Major
Basalt / Picro-Basalt
Foidite
Trachybasalt / Tephrite Basanite

Tectonic Setting

Intraplate
Continental crust (> 25 km)

Population

Within 5 km
Within 10 km
Within 30 km
Within 100 km
197,199
197,199
197,199
774,386

Geological Summary

The dominantly Pliocene Calatrava volcanic field lies in central Spain near Ciudad Real. The more than 300 basaltic-to-foiditic pyroclastic cones, maars, and lava domes cover an area of more than 5000 sq km. The Calatrava volcanic field is mostly of Pliocene or late-Pleistocene age, although late-stage phreatomagmatic activity at Columba volcano was dated at the mid-Holocene. The volcanic field lies in a continental rift setting and contains several lake-filled maars. Fumarolic activity was recorded in the Sierra de Valenzuela area during the 16th-18th centuries.

References

The following references have all been used during the compilation of data for this volcano, it is not a comprehensive bibliography.

Gonzalez Cardenas E, Gosalvez Rey R U, Escobar Lahoz E, Becerra Ramirez R, 2007. Condiciones medioambientales en el Holoceno medio del Campo de Calatrava (Ciudad Real, Espana): resultados preliminares. Actas Cong Nac Biogeogr, in press.

IAVCEI, 1973-80. Post-Miocene Volcanoes of the World. IAVCEI Data Sheets, Rome: Internatl Assoc Volc Chemistry Earth's Interior..

Lopez-Ruiz J, Maria Cebria J, Doblas M, 2002. Cenozoic volcanism I: the Iberian peninsula. In: Gibbons W, Moreno T (eds) {The Geology of Spain}, Geol Soc London, 649 p.

Eruptive History


Summary of Holocene eruption dates and Volcanic Explosivity Indices (VEI).


Start Date Stop Date Eruption Certainty VEI Evidence Activity Area or Unit
3600 BCE ± 500 years Unknown Confirmed   Radiocarbon (corrected) Columba

This compilation of synonyms and subsidiary features may not be comprehensive. Features are organized into four major categories: Cones, Craters, Domes, and Thermal Features. Synonyms of features appear indented below the primary name. In some cases additional feature type, elevation, or location details are provided.


Cones

Feature Name Feature Type Elevation Latitude Longitude
Columba, Volcán Cone 731 m 38° 45' 30" N 3° 37' 0" W

Craters

Feature Name Feature Type Elevation Latitude Longitude
Cabezuelo, Volcán de el Maar 691 m
Cuevas, Volcán las Maar 671 m
Maestras, Las Maar
Mortero, El Maar
Vega de Castellanos Maar 640 m

Photo Gallery


Columba volcano, the youngest dated vent of the dominantly Pliocene Calatrava volcanic field, rises above the Jabalón reservoir. The massive volcanic field covers an area of more than 5000 sq km and contains more than 300 pyroclastic cones, maars, and lava domes. The Calatrava volcanic field is mostly of Pliocene or late-Pleistocene age, although late-stage phreatomagmatic activity at Columba volcano was dated at the mid-Holocene. Fumarolic activity was recorded in the Sierra de Valenzuela area during the 16th-18th centuries.

Photo by Rafael Becerra Ramírez, 2006 (Universidad de Castilla-La Mancha).

Smithsonian Sample Collections Database


A listing of samples from the Smithsonian collections will be available soon.

Affiliated Sites

Large Eruptions of Calatrava Volcanic Field Information about large Quaternary eruptions (VEI >= 4) is cataloged in the Large Magnitude Explosive Volcanic Eruptions (LaMEVE) database of the Volcano Global Risk Identification and Analysis Project (VOGRIPA).
WOVOdat WOVOdat is a database of volcanic unrest; instrumentally and visually recorded changes in seismicity, ground deformation, gas emission, and other parameters from their normal baselines. It is sponsored by the World Organization of Volcano Observatories (WOVO) and presently hosted at the Earth Observatory of Singapore.
EarthChem EarthChem develops and maintains databases, software, and services that support the preservation, discovery, access and analysis of geochemical data, and facilitate their integration with the broad array of other available earth science parameters. EarthChem is operated by a joint team of disciplinary scientists, data scientists, data managers and information technology developers who are part of the NSF-funded data facility Integrated Earth Data Applications (IEDA). IEDA is a collaborative effort of EarthChem and the Marine Geoscience Data System (MGDS).
MODVOLC - HIGP MODIS Thermal Alert System Using infrared satellite Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) data, scientists at the Hawai'i Institute of Geophysics and Planetology, University of Hawai'i, developed an automated system called MODVOLC to map thermal hot-spots in near real time. For each MODIS image, the algorithm automatically scans each 1 km pixel within it to check for high-temperature hot-spots. When one is found the date, time, location, and intensity are recorded. MODIS looks at every square km of the Earth every 48 hours, once during the day and once during the night, and the presence of two MODIS sensors in space allows at least four hot-spot observations every two days. Each day updated global maps are compiled to display the locations of all hot spots detected in the previous 24 hours. There is a drop-down list with volcano names which allow users to 'zoom-in' and examine the distribution of hot-spots at a variety of spatial scales.
MIROVA Middle InfraRed Observation of Volcanic Activity (MIROVA) is a near real time volcanic hot-spot detection system based on the analysis of MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) data. In particular, MIROVA uses the Middle InfraRed Radiation (MIR), measured over target volcanoes, in order to detect, locate and measure the heat radiation sourced from volcanic activity.