Vulsini

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  • Country
  • Volcanic Region
  • Primary Volcano Type
  • Last Known Eruption
  • 42.6°N
  • 11.93°E

  • 800 m
    2624 ft

  • 211003
  • Latitude
  • Longitude

  • Summit
    Elevation

  • Volcano
    Number

The Global Volcanism Program has no activity reports for Vulsini.

The Global Volcanism Program has no Weekly Reports available for Vulsini.

The Global Volcanism Program has no Bulletin Reports available for Vulsini.

The Vulsini volcanic complex in central Italy covers about 2200 sq km at the northern end of the Roman magmatic province. Following lava extrusion and explosive eruptions that constructed the main Vulsini complex, the 16-km-wide, lake-filled Bolsena caldera on the east and the 8 x 11 km Latera caldera on the west were formed during major Pleistocene explosive eruptions at about 0.3 and 0.16 million years ago, respectively. Five major plinian fall deposits were erupted from vents at or near Latera caldera during the late Pleistocene. The latest major eruption formed unwelded pumice flows and welded airfall tuffs of the Pitigliano Formation, associated with collapse of the Vepe caldera about 166,000 years ago at the NW end of Latera caldera. Post-caldera volcanism produced scoria cones and lava flows from vents within and to the west of Latera caldera and lasted until subrecent times. Youthful-looking remnants of ash cones in Lake Bolsena may have given rise to a legend of a pre-historical fire-god, Volta. An historical report noted that "a flame shot up near Volsini" in 104 BCE.

Summary of Holocene eruption dates and Volcanic Explosivity Indices (VEI).

Start Date Stop Date Eruption Certainty VEI Evidence Activity Area or Unit
0104 BCE Unknown Confirmed   Historical Observations

This compilation of synonyms and subsidiary features may not be comprehensive. Features are organized into four major categories: Cones, Craters, Domes, and Thermal Features. Synonyms of features appear indented below the primary name. In some cases additional feature type, elevation, or location details are provided.



Synonyms
Volsini


Cones
Feature Name Feature Type Elevation Latitude Longitude
Becco, Mount Cone
Bisentina, Isola Cone
Dogana, La Cone
Evangelista, Mount Cone 633 m
Martana, Isola Cone
Molino Cone
Montefiascone Cone
Montione, Mount Cone
Mulino De Valentano Cone
Pilato, Mount Cone
Rosso, Mount Cone
Santa Luce Cone
Santa Maria Di Sala Cone
Selva Del Lamone Cone
Semonte, Mount Cone
Spinaio, Mount Cone
Valentano Cone


Craters
Feature Name Feature Type Elevation Latitude Longitude
Bolsena Pleistocene caldera
Latera Pleistocene caldera
Vepe Pleistocene caldera
Geologists examine a quarry in a post-caldera cone of the Vulsini volcanic complex. The base of the quarry exposes thick, red-colored scoria deposits produced by strombolian eruptions that built a cinder cone. These are overlain by bedded, yellowish pyroclastic-surge deposits.

Photo by Richard Waitt, 1985 (U.S. Geological Survey).
The 16-km-wide Bolsena caldera, filled by the waters of Lago di Bolsena, is the most prominent feature of the Vulsini volcanic complex NW of Rome. The 2000 sq km volcanic complex also includes the Latera caldera to the west. Both calderas were formed during the Pleistocene. Post-caldera eruptions produced scoria cones, lava flows, and youthful-looking, ash-cone islands in Lago di Bolsena that may have given origin to legends of a fire god.

Photo by Richard Waitt, 1985 (U.S. Geological Survey).
The small Amiata lava-dome complex (just right of the center of this image), is located about 20 km NW of Lake Bolsena (left-center) in the southern Tuscany region of Italy. Viscous lava flows can be seen descending the flanks of the complex in this NASA Space Shuttle image (with north to the lower right). The largest of the domes is 1738-m-high Monte Amiata (La Vetta). No eruptive activity has occurred at Amiata during the Holocene, but thermal activity continues at a producing geothermal field.

NASA Space Station image ISS008-E-7007, 2003 (http://eol.jsc.nasa.gov/).
The small Amiata lava-dome complex (just right of the center of this image), is located about 20 km NW of Lake Bolsena (left-center) in the southern Tuscany region of Italy. Viscous lava flows can be seen descending the flanks of the complex in this NASA Space Shuttle image (with north to the lower right). The largest of the domes is 1738-m-high Monte Amiata (La Vetta). No eruptive activity has occurred at Amiata during the Holocene, but thermal activity continues at a producing geothermal field.

NASA Space Station image ISS008-E-7007, 2003 (http://eol.jsc.nasa.gov/).
Three large calderas are seen in this NASA Space Shuttle image (with north to the upper left) of the Vulsini volcanic complex in central Italy. The 16-km-wide Lake Bolsena (left-center) was formed during major Pleistocene explosive eruptions at about 0.3 years ago and the 8 x 11 km wide Latera caldera (below and to the left of Bolsena) about 0.16 million years ago. Post-caldera volcanism produced scoria cones and lava flows (lower left) until subrecent times. Pleistocene Lake Vico in the Cimini Mountains lies at the right-center.

NASA Space Station image ISS006-E-36701, 2003 (http://eol.jsc.nasa.gov/).
Two calderas are seen in this NASA Space Shuttle image (with north to the upper left) of the Vulsini volcanic complex. The 16-km-wide Lake Bolesena (left-center) was formed following major Pleistocene explosive eruptions at about 0.3 million years ago. The 8 x 11 km wide Latera caldera (below and to the left of Bolsena) was formed about 0.16 million years ago. Post-caldera volcanism produced scoria cones and lava flows (lower left) from vents at or near Latera caldera until subrecent times.

NASA Space Station image ISS006-E-36701, 2003 (http://eol.jsc.nasa.gov/).

The following references have all been used during the compilation of data for this volcano, it is not a comprehensive bibliography. Discussion of another volcano or eruption (sometimes far from the one that is the subject of the manuscript) may produce a citation that is not at all apparent from the title.

Barberi F, Innocenti F, Landi P, Rossi U, Saitta M, Santacroce R, Villa I M, 1984. The evolution of Latera caldera (Central Italy) in the light of subsurface data. Bull Volc, 47: 125-143.

Capaccioni B, Nappi G, Renzulli A, 1994. Stratigraphy, eruptive mechanisms and depositional processes of the Pitigliano Formation (Latera volcanic complex), Vulsini District, Italy. Acta Vulc, 5: 31-39.

IAVCEI, 1973-80. Post-Miocene Volcanoes of the World. IAVCEI Data Sheets, Rome: Internatl Assoc Volc Chemistry Earth's Interior..

Nappi G, Capaccioni B, Mattioli M, Mancini E, Valentini L, 1994. Plinian fall deposits from Vulsini District (Central Italy). Bull Volc, 56: 502-515.

Palladino D M, Agosta E, 1997. Pumice fall deposits of the western Vulsini volcanoes (central Italy). J Volc Geotherm Res, 78: 77-102.

Palladino D M, Simei S, 2002. Three types of pyroclastic currents and their deposits: examples from the Vulsini Volcanoes, Italy. J Volc Geotherm Res, 116: 97-118.

Palladino D M, Simei S, 2005. Eruptive dynamics and caldera collapse during the Onano eruption, Vulsini, Italy. Bull Volc, 67: 423-440.

Palladino D M, Valentine G A, 1995. Coarse-tail vertical and lateral grading in pyroclastic flow deposits of the Latera volcanic complex (Vulsini, central Italy): origin and implications for flow dynamics. J Volc Geotherm Res, 69: 343-364.

Sparks R S J, 1975. Stratigraphy and geology of the ignimbrites of Vulsini volcano, central Italy. Geol Rundschau, 64: 497-523.

Stothers R B, Rampino M R, 1983. Volcanic eruptions in the Mediterranean before AD 630 from written and archaeological sources. J Geophys Res, 88: 6357-6371.

Varekamp J C, 1980. The geology of the Vulsinian area, Lazio, Italy. Bull Volc, 43: 487-504.

Volcano Types

Caldera
Tuff cone(s)

Tectonic Setting

Subduction zone
Continental crust (> 25 km)

Rock Types

Major
Trachyte / Trachyandesite
Trachybasalt / Tephrite Basanite
Phonolite
Foidite
Phono-tephrite / Tephri-phonolite

Population

Within 5 km
Within 10 km
Within 30 km
Within 100 km
71,789
71,789
195,475
4,627,250

Affiliated Databases

Large Eruptions of Vulsini Information about large Quaternary eruptions (VEI >= 4) is cataloged in the Large Magnitude Explosive Volcanic Eruptions (LaMEVE) database of the Volcano Global Risk Identification and Analysis Project (VOGRIPA).
WOVOdat WOVOdat is a database of volcanic unrest; instrumentally and visually recorded changes in seismicity, ground deformation, gas emission, and other parameters from their normal baselines. It is sponsored by the World Organization of Volcano Observatories (WOVO) and presently hosted at the Earth Observatory of Singapore.
EarthChem EarthChem develops and maintains databases, software, and services that support the preservation, discovery, access and analysis of geochemical data, and facilitate their integration with the broad array of other available earth science parameters. EarthChem is operated by a joint team of disciplinary scientists, data scientists, data managers and information technology developers who are part of the NSF-funded data facility Integrated Earth Data Applications (IEDA). IEDA is a collaborative effort of EarthChem and the Marine Geoscience Data System (MGDS).
Smithsonian Collections Search the Smithsonian's NMNH Department of Mineral Sciences collections database. Go to the "Search Rocks and Ores" tab and use the Volcano Name drop-down to find samples.