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  • Country
  • Volcanic Region
  • Primary Volcano Type
  • Last Known Eruption
  • 36.852°N
  • 27.251°E

  • 430 m
    1410 ft

  • 212805
  • Latitude
  • Longitude

  • Summit

  • Volcano

The Global Volcanism Program has no activity reports for Kos.

The Global Volcanism Program has no Weekly Reports available for Kos.

The Global Volcanism Program has no Bulletin Reports available for Kos.

Basic Data

Volcano Number

Last Known Eruption



Unknown - Unrest / Pleistocene

430 m / 1410 ft


Volcano Types

Lava dome

Tectonic Setting

Subduction zone
Continental crust (> 25 km)

Geological Summary

The island of Kos is dominantly non-volcanic but contains Miocene to Pleistocene volcanic centers. The Kamari caldera is of mid-Pleistocene age and contains the 1.0-0.55 million-year-old, post-caldera Zini lava dome. The formation of a large caldera deposited the widespread Kos Plateau Tuff (erupted about 160,000 years ago), which blankets much of the western half of Kos and originated from a stratovolcano between Kos and Nisyros islands. The caldera dimensions are uncertain, but may extend as much as 20 km from Kefalos Bay in SW Kos Island to Nisyros Island. Remnants of the pre-eruption stratovolcano are preserved on the islets of Pachia and Pyrgousa and as submarine volcanic rocks on Nisyros. Kos was included in the Catalog of Active Volcanoes of the World (Georgalas, 1962) based on its geothermal activity. Several solfatara fields are present, including Vromotopos at Kefalos Isthmus on the western side of the island and a group of thermal areas at the eastern side of Kos. Thermal activity consists of weak hydrogen sulfide emission, sulfur deposits, and two hot springs along the southeastern coast.


The following references have all been used during the compilation of data for this volcano, it is not a comprehensive bibliography.

Allen S R, 2001. Reconstruction of a major caldera-forming eruption from pyroclastic deposit characteristics: Kos Plateau Tuff, eastern Aegean Sea. J Volc Geotherm Res, 105: 141-162.

Allen S R, Cas R A F, 1998. Lateral variations within coarse co-ignimbrite lithic breccias of the Kos Plateau Tuff, Greece. Bull Volc, 59: 356-377.

Allen S R, Cas R A F, 2001. Transport of pyroclastic flows across the sea during the explosive, rhyolitic eruption of the Kos Plateau Tuff, Greece. Bull Volc, 62: 441-456.

Allen S R, McPhie J, 2001. Syn-eruptive chaotic breccia on Kos, Greece, associated with an energetic pyroclastic flow. Bull Volc, 63: 421-432.

Georgalas G C, 1962. Greece. Catalog of Active Volcanoes of the World and Solfatara Fields, Rome: IAVCEI, 12: 1-40.

Katsui Y (ed), 1971. List of the World Active Volcanoes. Volc Soc Japan draft ms, (limited circulation), 160 p.

Keller J, 1982. Mediterranean Island Arcs. In: Thorpe R S (ed) {Andesites}, New York: John Wiley Sons, p 307-326.

Keller J, Rehren T, Stadlbauer E, 1990. Explosive volcanism in the Hellenic arc: a summary and review. In: Hardy D (ed) {Thera and the Aegean World III}, London: Thera Foundation, 2: 13-26.

Pallidino D M, Simei S, Kyriakopoulos K, 2008. On magma fragmentation by conduit shear stress: evidence from Kos Plateau Tuff, Aegean volcanic arc. J Volc Geotherm Res, 178: 807-817.

Pe-Piper G, Piper D J W, Perissoratis C, 2005. Neotectonics and the Kos Plateau Tuff eruption of 161 ka, South Aegean arc. J Volc Geotherm Res, 139: 315-338.

Piper D J W, Pe-Piper G, Lefort D, 2010. Precursory activity of the 161 ka Kos Plateau Tuff eruption, Aegean Sea (Greece). Bull Volc, 72: 657-669.

The Global Volcanism Program is not aware of any Holocene eruptions from Kos. If this volcano has had large eruptions (VEI >= 4) prior to 10,000 years ago, information might be found on the Kos page in the LaMEVE (Large Magnitude Explosive Volcanic Eruptions) database, a part of the Volcano Global Risk Identification and Analysis Project (VOGRIPA).

This compilation of synonyms and subsidiary features may not be comprehensive. Features are organized into four major categories: Cones, Craters, Domes, and Thermal Features. Synonyms of features appear indented below the primary name. In some cases additional feature type, elevation, or location details are provided.




Feature Name Feature Type Elevation Latitude Longitude
Kamari Pleistocene caldera


Feature Name Feature Type Elevation Latitude Longitude
Zini Dome


Feature Name Feature Type Elevation Latitude Longitude
Chaikutes Thermal 36° 50' 35" N 27° 14' 17" E
Essino Thermal 36° 49' 44" N 27° 15' 25" E
Volcania Thermal
Vourka Thermal 36° 51' 7" N 27° 15' 4" E
Vromotopos Thermal 36° 45' 58" N 27° 0' 18" E

Photo Gallery

Light-colored ignimbrite deposits, eroded into mesas bounded by steep-walled valleys, cap the central part of the island of Kos. The island is dominantly non-volcanic but contains Miocene to Pleistocene volcanic centers. The Kamari caldera is of mid-Pleistocene age and contains the 1.0-0.55 million-year-old, post-caldera Zini lava dome. The widespread Kos Plateau Tuff (145,000 years old) originated from a submarine source between Kos and Nisyros islands. Several solfatara fields are found on Kos.

Photo by Ichio Moriya (Kanazawa University).

Smithsonian Sample Collections Database

The following 1 samples associated with this volcano can be found in the Smithsonian's NMNH Department of Mineral Sciences collections. Catalog number links will open a window with more information.

Catalog Number Sample Description
NMNH 98780 Dacite with hornblende and hypersthene

Affiliated Sites

Large Eruptions of Kos Information about large Quaternary eruptions (VEI >= 4) is cataloged in the Large Magnitude Explosive Volcanic Eruptions (LaMEVE) database of the Volcano Global Risk Identification and Analysis Project (VOGRIPA).
WOVOdat WOVOdat is a database of volcanic unrest; instrumentally and visually recorded changes in seismicity, ground deformation, gas emission, and other parameters from their normal baselines. It is sponsored by the World Organization of Volcano Observatories (WOVO) and presently hosted at the Earth Observatory of Singapore.
EarthChem EarthChem develops and maintains databases, software, and services that support the preservation, discovery, access and analysis of geochemical data, and facilitate their integration with the broad array of other available earth science parameters. EarthChem is operated by a joint team of disciplinary scientists, data scientists, data managers and information technology developers who are part of the NSF-funded data facility Integrated Earth Data Applications (IEDA). IEDA is a collaborative effort of EarthChem and the Marine Geoscience Data System (MGDS).
MODVOLC - HIGP MODIS Thermal Alert System Using infrared satellite Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) data, scientists at the Hawai'i Institute of Geophysics and Planetology, University of Hawai'i, developed an automated system called MODVOLC to map thermal hot-spots in near real time. For each MODIS image, the algorithm automatically scans each 1 km pixel within it to check for high-temperature hot-spots. When one is found the date, time, location, and intensity are recorded. MODIS looks at every square km of the Earth every 48 hours, once during the day and once during the night, and the presence of two MODIS sensors in space allows at least four hot-spot observations every two days. Each day updated global maps are compiled to display the locations of all hot spots detected in the previous 24 hours. There is a drop-down list with volcano names which allow users to 'zoom-in' and examine the distribution of hot-spots at a variety of spatial scales.
MIROVA Middle InfraRed Observation of Volcanic Activity (MIROVA) is a near real time volcanic hot-spot detection system based on the analysis of MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) data. In particular, MIROVA uses the Middle InfraRed Radiation (MIR), measured over target volcanoes, in order to detect, locate and measure the heat radiation sourced from volcanic activity.