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  • Country
  • Volcanic Region
  • Primary Volcano Type
  • Last Known Eruption
  • 38.58°N
  • 28.52°E

  • 750 m
    2460 ft

  • 213000
  • Latitude
  • Longitude

  • Summit

  • Volcano

The Global Volcanism Program has no activity reports for Kula.

The Global Volcanism Program has no Weekly Reports available for Kula.

The Global Volcanism Program has no Bulletin Reports available for Kula.

Basic Data

Volcano Number

Last Known Eruption



Unknown - Evidence Credible

750 m / 2460 ft


Volcano Types

Pyroclastic cone(s)

Rock Types

Trachybasalt / Tephrite Basanite
Phono-tephrite / Tephri-phonolite
Basalt / Picro-Basalt
Trachyandesite / Basaltic trachy-andesite

Tectonic Setting

Continental crust (> 25 km)


Within 5 km
Within 10 km
Within 30 km
Within 100 km

Geological Summary

The Kula volcanic field, the westernmost area of young volcanism in Turkey, lies about 450 km WNW of its closest Holocene neighbor in central Turkey, the Karapinar volcanic field. The Kula field consists of a broad area of Quaternary alkaline basanitic-to-phonotephritic cinder cones and maars erupted along a roughly E-W-trending line SW of the city of Selendi. Most of the Kula volcanoes are Pleistocene in age, between about 1.1 million and 10,000 years old. The initial stage produced lava flows from vents along the ring fracture of caldera identified from satellite images. The second and third stages took place along an E-W-trending graben and produced lava flows with ultramafic xenoliths. Although activity was considered to have continued until the beginning of the Holocene (Yilmaz, 1990), or almost to historical times (Borsi et al., 1972), the age of the most recent eruption from the Kula field is not known.


The following references have all been used during the compilation of data for this volcano, it is not a comprehensive bibliography.

Alici P, Temel A, Gourgaud A, 2002. Pb-Nd-Sr isotope and trace element geochemistry of Quaternay extension-related volcanism: a case study of Kula region (western Anatolia, Turkey). J Volc Geotherm Res, 115: 487-510.

Aydar E, 1998. Early Miocene to Quaternary evolution of volcanism and the basin formation in western Anatolia: a review. J Volc Geotherm Res, 85: 69-82.

Borsi S, Ferrara G, Innocenti F, Mazzuoli R, 1972. Geochronology and petrology of recent volcanics in the eastern Aegean Sea (west Anatolia and Lesvos Island). Bull Volc, 36: 473-496.

Bunbury J M, Hall L, Anderson G J, Stannard A, 2001. The determination of fault movement history from the interaction of local drainage with volcanic epidsodes. Geol Mag, 138: 185-192.

Ercan T, Oztunali O, 1982. Characteristic features and "base surges" bed forms of Kula volcanics. Bull Geol Soc Turkey, 25: 117-125 (in Turkish with English abs).

Holness M B, Bunbury J M, 2006. Insights into continental rift-related magma chambers: cognate nodules from the Kula volcanic province, western Turkey. J Volc Geotherm Res, 153: 241-261.

IAVCEI, 1973-80. Post-Miocene Volcanoes of the World. IAVCEI Data Sheets, Rome: Internatl Assoc Volc Chemistry Earth's Interior..

Westaway R, Pringle M, Yurtmen S, Demir T, Bridgeland D, Rowbotham G, Maddy D, 2004. Pliocene and Quaternary regional uplift in western Turkey: the Gediz River terrace staircase and the volcanism at Kula. Tectonophysics, 391: 121-169.

The Global Volcanism Program is not aware of any Holocene eruptions from Kula. If this volcano has had large eruptions (VEI >= 4) prior to 10,000 years ago, information might be found on the Kula page in the LaMEVE (Large Magnitude Explosive Volcanic Eruptions) database, a part of the Volcano Global Risk Identification and Analysis Project (VOGRIPA).

This compilation of synonyms and subsidiary features may not be comprehensive. Features are organized into four major categories: Cones, Craters, Domes, and Thermal Features. Synonyms of features appear indented below the primary name. In some cases additional feature type, elevation, or location details are provided.


Feature Name Feature Type Elevation Latitude Longitude
Cemrkopru Baraj Golu Cone
Kara Divlit Tepe Pyroclastic cone
Kula Divlit Cone


Feature Name Feature Type Elevation Latitude Longitude
Cemel Tepe Maar

Photo Gallery

Kara Divlit Tepe ("Black Ink Cone") is part of the Kula volcanic field, the westernmost area of young volcanism in Turkey. Kara Divlit Tepe cinder cone is the youngest of the broad Quaternary volcanic field, which is mostly Pleistocene in age. The 300-m-high cone produced a voluminous lava flow, visible to the north to the right of the cone, that traveled 22 km to the NW and is one of the two youngest flows at Kula. The Kula volcanic field contains a group of cinder cones and maars erupted along a roughly E-W-trending line.

Photo by Samuele Agostini, 2000 (CNR, Pisa, Italy).

Smithsonian Sample Collections Database

The following 35 samples associated with this volcano can be found in the Smithsonian's NMNH Department of Mineral Sciences collections. Catalog number links will open a window with more information.

Catalog Number Sample Description
NMNH 111123-1247 Kulaite
NMNH 98649 Hornblende basalt
NMNH 98650 Hornblende basalt
NMNH 98651 Hornblende basalt
NMNH 98652 Hornblende basalt
NMNH 98653 Hornblende basalt
NMNH 98654 Hornblende basalt
NMNH 98655 Hornblende basalt
NMNH 98656 Hornblende basalt
NMNH 98657 Hornblende basalt
NMNH 98658 Hornblende basalt
NMNH 98659 Hornblende basalt
NMNH 98660 Hornblende basalt
NMNH 98661 Hornblende basalt
NMNH 98662 Schist
NMNH 98663 Hornblende basalt
NMNH 98664 Hornblende basalt
NMNH 98665 Hornblende basalt
NMNH 98666 Hornblende basalt
NMNH 98667 Hornblende basalt
NMNH 98668 Hornblende basalt
NMNH 98669 Basalt scoria
NMNH 98670 Hornblende basalt
NMNH 98671 Hornblende basalt
NMNH 98672 Hornblende basalt
NMNH 98673 Hornblende basalt
NMNH 98674 Hornblende basalt
NMNH 98675 Hornblende basalt
NMNH 98676 Hornblende basalt
NMNH 98677 Hornblende basalt
NMNH 98678 Hornblende basalt
NMNH 98680 Mica schist
NMNH 98681 Hornblende schist
NMNH 98682 Dolerite
NMNH 98683 Serpentinite

Affiliated Sites

Large Eruptions of Kula Information about large Quaternary eruptions (VEI >= 4) is cataloged in the Large Magnitude Explosive Volcanic Eruptions (LaMEVE) database of the Volcano Global Risk Identification and Analysis Project (VOGRIPA).
WOVOdat WOVOdat is a database of volcanic unrest; instrumentally and visually recorded changes in seismicity, ground deformation, gas emission, and other parameters from their normal baselines. It is sponsored by the World Organization of Volcano Observatories (WOVO) and presently hosted at the Earth Observatory of Singapore.
EarthChem EarthChem develops and maintains databases, software, and services that support the preservation, discovery, access and analysis of geochemical data, and facilitate their integration with the broad array of other available earth science parameters. EarthChem is operated by a joint team of disciplinary scientists, data scientists, data managers and information technology developers who are part of the NSF-funded data facility Integrated Earth Data Applications (IEDA). IEDA is a collaborative effort of EarthChem and the Marine Geoscience Data System (MGDS).
MODVOLC - HIGP MODIS Thermal Alert System Using infrared satellite Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) data, scientists at the Hawai'i Institute of Geophysics and Planetology, University of Hawai'i, developed an automated system called MODVOLC to map thermal hot-spots in near real time. For each MODIS image, the algorithm automatically scans each 1 km pixel within it to check for high-temperature hot-spots. When one is found the date, time, location, and intensity are recorded. MODIS looks at every square km of the Earth every 48 hours, once during the day and once during the night, and the presence of two MODIS sensors in space allows at least four hot-spot observations every two days. Each day updated global maps are compiled to display the locations of all hot spots detected in the previous 24 hours. There is a drop-down list with volcano names which allow users to 'zoom-in' and examine the distribution of hot-spots at a variety of spatial scales.
MIROVA Middle InfraRed Observation of Volcanic Activity (MIROVA) is a near real time volcanic hot-spot detection system based on the analysis of MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) data. In particular, MIROVA uses the Middle InfraRed Radiation (MIR), measured over target volcanoes, in order to detect, locate and measure the heat radiation sourced from volcanic activity.