Nemrut Dagi

Photo of this volcano
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  • Country
  • Volcanic Region
  • Primary Volcano Type
  • Last Known Eruption
  • 38.65°N
  • 42.23°E

  • 2948 m
    9669 ft

  • 213020
  • Latitude
  • Longitude

  • Summit
    Elevation

  • Volcano
    Number

The Global Volcanism Program has no activity reports for Nemrut Dagi.

The Global Volcanism Program has no Weekly Reports available for Nemrut Dagi.

The Global Volcanism Program has no Bulletin Reports available for Nemrut Dagi.

Nemrut Dagi is the westernmost of a group of volcanoes near Lake Van in eastern Anatolia and the only one that has erupted in historical time. Nemrut Dagi contains a 9 x 5 km caldera partially filled on its western side by a caldera lake. Post-caldera volcanism, of basaltic to rhyolitic composition, initially occurred along the caldera rim and floor. Pyroclastic flows and the emission of glassy obsidian lava flows accompanied construction of lava domes within the caldera; later activity formed a series of cinder cones and lava domes erupted along N-S-trending fissures on the northern flank. The most recent activity has been concentrated along a NNW-trending fissure cutting the eastern caldera floor and extending beyond the north caldera rim; nearly two dozen cinder cones and lava domes were constructed on the caldera floor. Ash layers in Lake Van document numerous Holocene eruptions, and an historical eruption in 1441 CE from a north-flank fissure involved compositionally bimodal lava flows.

Summary of Holocene eruption dates and Volcanic Explosivity Indices (VEI).

Start Date Stop Date Eruption Certainty VEI Evidence Activity Area or Unit
[ 1692 Apr 13 ] [ Unknown ] Uncertain    
1650 Oct 27 Unknown Confirmed   Historical Observations East flank (Lake Van)
1597 (in or before) Unknown Confirmed   Historical Observations
1441 Unknown Confirmed   Historical Observations North flank (Nemrut Boynu)
1402 (?) Unknown Confirmed   Varve Count
1111 Unknown Confirmed   Historical Observations East flank (Lake Van)
0531 BCE (?) Unknown Confirmed   Varve Count
0657 BCE ± 25 years Unknown Confirmed   Varve Count
0787 BCE ± 25 years Unknown Confirmed   Varve Count
1396 BCE (?) Unknown Confirmed   Varve Count
1662 BCE (?) Unknown Confirmed   Varve Count
4055 BCE ± 50 years Unknown Confirmed   Varve Count
4321 BCE (?) Unknown Confirmed   Varve Count
4615 BCE (?) Unknown Confirmed   Varve Count
4849 BCE (?) Unknown Confirmed   Varve Count
4938 BCE ± 75 years Unknown Confirmed   Varve Count
5085 BCE (?) Unknown Confirmed   Varve Count
5152 BCE (?) Unknown Confirmed   Varve Count
5242 BCE ± 75 years Unknown Confirmed   Varve Count
5320 BCE (?) Unknown Confirmed   Varve Count
5745 BCE (?) Unknown Confirmed   Varve Count
6213 BCE (?) Unknown Confirmed   Varve Count
6471 BCE (?) Unknown Confirmed   Varve Count
7087 BCE (?) Unknown Confirmed   Varve Count
7579 BCE (?) Unknown Confirmed   Varve Count
7769 BCE (?) Unknown Confirmed   Varve Count
9950 BCE ± 150 years Unknown Confirmed   Varve Count

This compilation of synonyms and subsidiary features may not be comprehensive. Features are organized into four major categories: Cones, Craters, Domes, and Thermal Features. Synonyms of features appear indented below the primary name. In some cases additional feature type, elevation, or location details are provided.


Synonyms

Nimrud Dagh | Mamrut Dagh

Cones

Feature Name Feature Type Elevation Latitude Longitude
Goltepe Cone
Ikincilgol Tepe Cone
Incekaya Tuff cone 2046 m
Kayalitepe Cone
Kelakirana Tepe Cone
Kerkorumiksi Tepe Cone
Mezarliktepe Cone
Nemrutbasi
    Nemrut Kale
Cone 2760 m
Sihmiran Tepe Cone
Yumurtadag Cone 2045 m
Yumurtatepe Cone

Craters

Feature Name Feature Type Elevation Latitude Longitude
Nemrut Boynu Fissure vent

Domes

Feature Name Feature Type Elevation Latitude Longitude
Germav Tepe Dome
Kale Tepe Dome
Kerkur
    Kirkor Dagi
Dome 2612 m
Mazik Dagi Dome
The prominent caldera in the center of the photo is Nemrut Dagi, the westernmost of a group of volcanoes near Lake Van. Nemrut Dagi lies north of the western part of Lake Van and is the only one of the group that has erupted in historical time. The 9 x 5 km caldera is partially filled by a lake, which appears as the smooth snow-covered right-hand side of the caldera floor in this near-vertical Space Shuttle photo with north to the bottom. Ash layers in Lake Van document numerous Holocene eruptions, the last of which took place in 1441 AD.

NASA Space Shuttle image STS45-80-08, 1992 (http://eol.jsc.nasa.gov/).
A dramatic 9 x 5 km caldera truncates the summit of Nemrut Dagi volcano near Lake Van in eastern Turkey. A lake that partially fills the western side of the caldera is constrained by post-caldera eruptions that produced glassy obsidian lava flows from lava domes on the eastern caldera floor. A series of cinder cones and lava domes were erupted along N-S-trending fissures on the northern flank. Ash layers in Lake Van document numerous Holocene eruptions from Nemrut Dagi.

NASA Space Shuttle image ISS001-E-6354, 2001 (http://eol.jsc.nasa.gov/).

The following references have all been used during the compilation of data for this volcano, it is not a comprehensive bibliography. Discussion of another volcano or eruption (sometimes far from the one that is the subject of the manuscript) may produce a citation that is not at all apparent from the title.

Aydar E, Gourgaud A, Ulusoy I, Digonnet F, Labazuy P, Sen E, Bayhan H, Kurttas T, Tolluoglu A U, 2003. Morphological analysis of active Mount Nemrut stratovolcano, eastern Turkey: evidences and possible impact areas of future eruption. J Volc Geotherm Res, 123: 301-312.

Blumenthal M M, van der Kaaden G, Vlodavetz V I, 1964. Turkey & Caucasus. Catalog of Active Volcanoes of the World and Solfatara Fields, Rome: IAVCEI, 17: 1-23.

Feraud J, Ozkocak O, 1993. Les volcans actifs de Turquie: guide geologique et itineraires de'excursions. L'Assoc Volc Europeenne (LAVE), 2: 1-82.

Guner Y, 1984. Geology, geomorphology and evolution of the Nemrut volcano. Jeomorfoloji Dergisi, 12: 23-65 (in Turkish with English abs).

Haroutiunian R A, 2006. The historical volcanoes of Armenia and adjacent areas revisited. J Volc Geotherm Res, 155: 334-337.

Karakhanian A, Djrbashian R, Trifonov V, Philip H, Arakelian S, Avagian A, 2002. Holocene-historical volcanism and active faults as natural risk factors for Armenia and adjacent countries. J Volc Geotherm Res, 113: 319-344.

Karakhanian A, Jrbashyan R, Trifonov V, Philip H, Arakelian S, Avagyan A, Baghdassaryan H, Davtian V, 2006. Historical volcanoes of Armenia and adjacent areas: what is revisited?. J Volc Geotherm Res, 155: 338-345.

Ozpeker I, 1973. Volcanological evolution of Nemrut Dagi. 4th Symp Mech Sci Res Center Turkey, p 1-17 (in Turkish).

Tchalenko J S, 1977. A reconnaissance of the seismicity and tectonics at the northern border of the Arabian Plate (Lake Van region). Rev Geog Phys Geol Dynam, 19: 189-208.

Ulusoy I, Cubukcu E, Aydar E, Labazuy P, Ersoy O, Sen E, Gourgaud A, 2012. Volcanological evolution and caldera forming eruptions of Mt. Nemrut (Eastern Turkey). J Volc Geotherm Res, 245: 21-39.

Ulusoy I, Labazuy P, Aydar E, Ersoy O, Cubukcu E, 2008. Structure of the Nemrut caldera (Eastern Anatolia, Turkey) and associated hydrothermal fluid circulation. J Volc Geotherm Res, 174: 269-283.

Yilmaz Y, Guner Y, Saroglu F, 1998. Geology of the Quaternary volcanic centers of the east Anatolia. J Volc Geotherm Res, 85: 173-210.

Volcano Types

Stratovolcano
Caldera
Lava dome(s)
Pyroclastic cone(s)

Tectonic Setting

Intraplate
Continental crust (> 25 km)

Rock Types

Major
Rhyolite
Trachyte / Trachyandesite
Trachyandesite / Basaltic trachy-andesite
Basalt / Picro-Basalt
Trachybasalt / Tephrite Basanite

Population

Within 5 km
Within 10 km
Within 30 km
Within 100 km
608
7,399
230,531
1,618,263

Affiliated Databases

Large Eruptions of Nemrut Dagi Information about large Quaternary eruptions (VEI >= 4) is cataloged in the Large Magnitude Explosive Volcanic Eruptions (LaMEVE) database of the Volcano Global Risk Identification and Analysis Project (VOGRIPA).
WOVOdat WOVOdat is a database of volcanic unrest; instrumentally and visually recorded changes in seismicity, ground deformation, gas emission, and other parameters from their normal baselines. It is sponsored by the World Organization of Volcano Observatories (WOVO) and presently hosted at the Earth Observatory of Singapore.
EarthChem EarthChem develops and maintains databases, software, and services that support the preservation, discovery, access and analysis of geochemical data, and facilitate their integration with the broad array of other available earth science parameters. EarthChem is operated by a joint team of disciplinary scientists, data scientists, data managers and information technology developers who are part of the NSF-funded data facility Integrated Earth Data Applications (IEDA). IEDA is a collaborative effort of EarthChem and the Marine Geoscience Data System (MGDS).
Smithsonian Collections Search the Smithsonian's NMNH Department of Mineral Sciences collections database. Go to the "Search Rocks and Ores" tab and use the Volcano Name drop-down to find samples.