Elbrus

Photo of this volcano
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  • Country
  • Volcanic Region
  • Primary Volcano Type
  • Last Known Eruption
  • 43.351°N
  • 42.442°E

  • 5642 m
    18506 ft

  • 214010
  • Latitude
  • Longitude

  • Summit
    Elevation

  • Volcano
    Number

The Global Volcanism Program has no activity reports for Elbrus.

The Global Volcanism Program has no Weekly Reports available for Elbrus.

The Global Volcanism Program has no Bulletin Reports available for Elbrus.

Basic Data

Volcano Number

Last Known Eruption

Elevation

Latitude
Longitude
214010

50 CE

5642 m / 18506 ft

43.351°N
42.442°E

Volcano Types

Stratovolcano

Rock Types

Major
Dacite
Andesite / Basaltic Andesite
Rhyolite
Trachyte / Trachyandesite

Tectonic Setting

Intraplate
Continental crust (> 25 km)

Population

Within 5 km
Within 10 km
Within 30 km
Within 100 km
26
195
5,718
1,469,719

Geological Summary

Elbrus, the highest peak of the Caucasus Mountains of SW Russia, is a large glaciated stratovolcano with twin summits. The 5621-m-high eastern summit has a 250-m-wide, well-preserved crater, separated by a low saddle from the 5642-m-high western summit. Eruptive products cover 260 sq km; its longest lava flow traveled 24 km down the NNE flank. The most recent lava flows are fresh-looking, and the latest eruptions took place during the Holocene (Catalog of Active Volcanoes of the World). Weak solfataric activity near the summit continues, and hot springs are present on the flanks.

References

The following references have all been used during the compilation of data for this volcano, it is not a comprehensive bibliography.

Blumenthal M M, van der Kaaden G, Vlodavetz V I, 1964. Turkey & Caucasus. Catalog of Active Volcanoes of the World and Solfatara Fields, Rome: IAVCEI, 17: 1-23.

Gushchenko I I, 1979. Eruptions of Volcanoes of the World: A Catalog. Moscow: Nauka Pub, Acad Sci USSR Far Eastern Sci Center, 474 p (in Russian).

Katsui Y (ed), 1971. List of the World Active Volcanoes. Volc Soc Japan draft ms, (limited circulation), 160 p.

Lebedev V A, Vashakidzeb G T, 2014. The Catalogue of Quaternary Volcanoes of the Greater Caucasus Based on Geochronological, Volcanological and Isotope-Geochemical Data. Journal of Volcanology and Seismology, v. 8, no. 2, p. 93–107. http://dx.doi.org/10.1134/S0742046314020043

Eruptive History


Summary of Holocene eruption dates and Volcanic Explosivity Indices (VEI).


Start Date Stop Date Eruption Certainty VEI Evidence Activity Area or Unit
0050 ± 50 years Unknown Confirmed   Tephrochronology

This compilation of synonyms and subsidiary features may not be comprehensive. Features are organized into four major categories: Cones, Craters, Domes, and Thermal Features. Synonyms of features appear indented below the primary name. In some cases additional feature type, elevation, or location details are provided.


Cones

Feature Name Feature Type Elevation Latitude Longitude
Chomart-Kol Pyroclastic cone 3130 m 43° 25' 39" N 42° 22' 31" E
Chuchkhur Pyroclastic cone 2530 m 43° 28' 14" N 42° 2' 2" E
Elbrus East Stratovolcano 5621 m 43° 20' 53" N 42° 27' 17" E
Elbrus West Stratovolcano 5642 m 43° 21' 4" N 42° 26' 32" E
Paleo-Elbrus Stratovolcano 4623 m 43° 20' 26" N 42° 23' 41" E
Syltran Lava cone 3539 m 43° 20' 8" N 42° 40' 25" E
Tashlysyrt Lava cone 2470 m 43° 31' 5" N 42° 46' 48" E
Tash-Tebe Lava cone 2482 m 43° 29' 40" N 42° 24' 12" E
Unnamed Former cone 3650 m 43° 20' 17" N 42° 20' 32" E
Unnamed Former cone 3350 m 43° 19' 21" N 42° 21' 18" E
Unnamed Former cone 2800 m 43° 18' 20" N 42° 22' 2" E

Craters

Feature Name Feature Type Elevation Latitude Longitude
Tyzyl Fissure vent 2130 m 43° 35' 37" N 42° 50' 14" E

Photo Gallery


Glaciers radiate from Mount Elbrus, the highest peak of the Caucasus Mountains of SW Russia. Elbrus has twin summits separated by a low saddle; snow-filled craters are visible in this image at both the 5595-m-high eastern summit and the 5633-m-high western summit. Products of Mount Elbrus cover 260 sq km; its longest lava flow traveled 24 km down the NNE flank. Elbrus has been active into the Holocene. Weak solfataric activity near the summit continues, and hot springs are present on the volcano's flanks.

Image courtesy of Earth Sciences and Image Analysis Laboratory, NASA Johnson Space Center, 2002 (http://eol.jsc.nasa.gov).

Smithsonian Sample Collections Database


A listing of samples from the Smithsonian collections will be available soon.

Affiliated Sites

Large Eruptions of Elbrus Information about large Quaternary eruptions (VEI >= 4) is cataloged in the Large Magnitude Explosive Volcanic Eruptions (LaMEVE) database of the Volcano Global Risk Identification and Analysis Project (VOGRIPA).
WOVOdat WOVOdat is a database of volcanic unrest; instrumentally and visually recorded changes in seismicity, ground deformation, gas emission, and other parameters from their normal baselines. It is sponsored by the World Organization of Volcano Observatories (WOVO) and presently hosted at the Earth Observatory of Singapore.
EarthChem EarthChem develops and maintains databases, software, and services that support the preservation, discovery, access and analysis of geochemical data, and facilitate their integration with the broad array of other available earth science parameters. EarthChem is operated by a joint team of disciplinary scientists, data scientists, data managers and information technology developers who are part of the NSF-funded data facility Integrated Earth Data Applications (IEDA). IEDA is a collaborative effort of EarthChem and the Marine Geoscience Data System (MGDS).
MODVOLC - HIGP MODIS Thermal Alert System Using infrared satellite Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) data, scientists at the Hawai'i Institute of Geophysics and Planetology, University of Hawai'i, developed an automated system called MODVOLC to map thermal hot-spots in near real time. For each MODIS image, the algorithm automatically scans each 1 km pixel within it to check for high-temperature hot-spots. When one is found the date, time, location, and intensity are recorded. MODIS looks at every square km of the Earth every 48 hours, once during the day and once during the night, and the presence of two MODIS sensors in space allows at least four hot-spot observations every two days. Each day updated global maps are compiled to display the locations of all hot spots detected in the previous 24 hours. There is a drop-down list with volcano names which allow users to 'zoom-in' and examine the distribution of hot-spots at a variety of spatial scales.
MIROVA Middle InfraRed Observation of Volcanic Activity (MIROVA) is a near real time volcanic hot-spot detection system based on the analysis of MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) data. In particular, MIROVA uses the Middle InfraRed Radiation (MIR), measured over target volcanoes, in order to detect, locate and measure the heat radiation sourced from volcanic activity.