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  • Country
  • Volcanic Region
  • Primary Volcano Type
  • Last Known Eruption
  • 42.7°N
  • 44.5°E

  • 5050 m
    16564 ft

  • 214020
  • Latitude
  • Longitude

  • Summit

  • Volcano

The Global Volcanism Program has no activity reports for Kazbek.

The Global Volcanism Program has no Weekly Reports available for Kazbek.

The Global Volcanism Program has no Bulletin Reports available for Kazbek.

Basic Data

Volcano Number

Last Known Eruption



750 BCE

5050 m / 16564 ft


Volcano Types

Lava dome

Rock Types

Andesite / Basaltic Andesite

Tectonic Setting

Continental crust (> 25 km)


Within 5 km
Within 10 km
Within 30 km
Within 100 km

Geological Summary

The 5050-m-high, glacier-covered Kazbek stratovolcano in the Caucasus Mountains of Georgia, just south of the border with Russia, has produced long lava flows down flank valleys. Next to Mount Elbrus, it is the highest volcano in Caucasus Mountains. The summit cone and the latest lava flows are of post-glacial age, and the latest andesitic-dacitic lava flow was radiocarbon dated at about 6000 years ago. Gushchenko (1979) listed an 800-700 BCE eruption.


The following references have all been used during the compilation of data for this volcano, it is not a comprehensive bibliography.

Gushchenko I I, 1979. Eruptions of Volcanoes of the World: A Catalog. Moscow: Nauka Pub, Acad Sci USSR Far Eastern Sci Center, 474 p (in Russian).

IAVCEI, 1973-80. Post-Miocene Volcanoes of the World. IAVCEI Data Sheets, Rome: Internatl Assoc Volc Chemistry Earth's Interior..

Lebedev V A, Vashakidzeb G T, 2014. The Catalogue of Quaternary Volcanoes of the Greater Caucasus Based on Geochronological, Volcanological and Isotope-Geochemical Data. Journal of Volcanology and Seismology, v. 8, no. 2, p. 93–107. http://dx.doi.org/10.1134/S0742046314020043

Sviatlovsky A E, 1959. Atlas of Volcanoes of the Soviet Union. Moscow: Akad Nauk SSSR, 170 p (in Russian with English summary).

Eruptive History

Summary of Holocene eruption dates and Volcanic Explosivity Indices (VEI).

Start Date Stop Date Eruption Certainty VEI Evidence Activity Area or Unit
0750 BCE ± 50 years Unknown Confirmed   Tephrochronology
4000 BCE ± 50 years Unknown Confirmed   Radiocarbon (uncorrected)

This compilation of synonyms and subsidiary features may not be comprehensive. Features are organized into four major categories: Cones, Craters, Domes, and Thermal Features. Synonyms of features appear indented below the primary name. In some cases additional feature type, elevation, or location details are provided.




Feature Name Feature Type Elevation Latitude Longitude
Kabardzhin Stratovolcano 3136 m 42° 34' 17" N 44° 33' 24" E
Stratovolcano 5034 m 42° 41' 49" N 44° 31' 9" E
Kechuttsveri Lava cone 3251 m 42° 40' 41" N 44° 33' 56" E
Lesser Tkarsheti Lava cone 2214 m 42° 36' 41" N 44° 34' 0" E
Peak Mnaisi Lava cone 3638 m 42° 41' 1" N 44° 27' 5" E
Unnamed Pyroclastic cone 1834 m 42° 40' 2" N 44° 38' 28" E
Unnamed Pyroclastic cone 1800 m 42° 36' 44" N 44° 35' 0" E
Unnamed Pyroclastic cone 1860 m 42° 35' 50" N 44° 33' 27" E
Unnamed Former cone 2870 m 42° 42' 48" N 44° 33' 32" E
Unnamed Pyroclastic cone 2120 m 42° 35' 24" N 44° 34' 44" E
Unnamed Pyroclastic cone 2354 m 42° 33' 49" N 44° 35' 21" E


Feature Name Feature Type Elevation Latitude Longitude
Narvani Fissure vent 2975 m 42° 31' 37" N 44° 33' 0" E


Feature Name Feature Type Elevation Latitude Longitude
Betlemi Dome 3219 m 42° 39' 14" N 44° 34' 20" E
Lesser Shevardeni Dome 3702 m 42° 38' 54" N 44° 30' 4" E
Milioni Dome 2857 m 42° 32' 11" N 44° 32' 25" E
    Syrh of Kazbek
Dome 3625 m 42° 38' 3" N 44° 29' 38" E
Tkarsheti Dome 3417 m 42° 38' 16" N 44° 32' 45" E
Tsitelidziri Dome 3063 m 42° 32' 18" N 44° 35' 59" E
Unnamed Dome 2645 m 42° 31' 36" N 44° 32' 3" E

Photo Gallery

The 5050-m-high, glacier-covered Kasbek stratovolcano, the second highest in the Caucasus Mountains of Georgia, lies just south of the border with Russia. The summit cone and the latest lava flows are of postglacial age, and the latest andesitic-dacitic lava flow was radiocarbon dated at about 6000 years ago. Arrows at the top left on this August 13, 2002 NASA Space Shuttle image mark the path of an avalanche and debris flow produced by collapse of a glacier the following month.

Image courtesy of Earth Sciences and Image Analysis Laboratory, NASA Johnson Space Center, 2002 (http://eol.jsc.nasa.gov).

Smithsonian Sample Collections Database

There are no samples for Kazbek in the Smithsonian's NMNH Department of Mineral Sciences Rock and Ore collection.

Affiliated Sites

Large Eruptions of Kazbek Information about large Quaternary eruptions (VEI >= 4) is cataloged in the Large Magnitude Explosive Volcanic Eruptions (LaMEVE) database of the Volcano Global Risk Identification and Analysis Project (VOGRIPA).
WOVOdat WOVOdat is a database of volcanic unrest; instrumentally and visually recorded changes in seismicity, ground deformation, gas emission, and other parameters from their normal baselines. It is sponsored by the World Organization of Volcano Observatories (WOVO) and presently hosted at the Earth Observatory of Singapore.
EarthChem EarthChem develops and maintains databases, software, and services that support the preservation, discovery, access and analysis of geochemical data, and facilitate their integration with the broad array of other available earth science parameters. EarthChem is operated by a joint team of disciplinary scientists, data scientists, data managers and information technology developers who are part of the NSF-funded data facility Integrated Earth Data Applications (IEDA). IEDA is a collaborative effort of EarthChem and the Marine Geoscience Data System (MGDS).
MODVOLC - HIGP MODIS Thermal Alert System Using infrared satellite Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) data, scientists at the Hawai'i Institute of Geophysics and Planetology, University of Hawai'i, developed an automated system called MODVOLC to map thermal hot-spots in near real time. For each MODIS image, the algorithm automatically scans each 1 km pixel within it to check for high-temperature hot-spots. When one is found the date, time, location, and intensity are recorded. MODIS looks at every square km of the Earth every 48 hours, once during the day and once during the night, and the presence of two MODIS sensors in space allows at least four hot-spot observations every two days. Each day updated global maps are compiled to display the locations of all hot spots detected in the previous 24 hours. There is a drop-down list with volcano names which allow users to 'zoom-in' and examine the distribution of hot-spots at a variety of spatial scales.
MIROVA Middle InfraRed Observation of Volcanic Activity (MIROVA) is a near real time volcanic hot-spot detection system based on the analysis of MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) data. In particular, MIROVA uses the Middle InfraRed Radiation (MIR), measured over target volcanoes, in order to detect, locate and measure the heat radiation sourced from volcanic activity.