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  • Country
  • Volcanic Region
  • Primary Volcano Type
  • Last Known Eruption
  • 42.7°N
  • 44.5°E

  • 5050 m
    16564 ft

  • 214020
  • Latitude
  • Longitude

  • Summit

  • Volcano

The Global Volcanism Program has no activity reports for Kazbek.

The Global Volcanism Program has no Weekly Reports available for Kazbek.

The Global Volcanism Program has no Bulletin Reports available for Kazbek.

Volcano Types

Lava dome

Tectonic Setting

Continental crust (> 25 km)

Rock Types

Andesite / Basaltic Andesite


Within 5 km
Within 10 km
Within 30 km
Within 100 km

Geological Summary

The 5050-m-high, glacier-covered Kazbek stratovolcano in the Caucasus Mountains of Georgia, just south of the border with Russia, has produced long lava flows down flank valleys. Next to Mount Elbrus, it is the highest volcano in Caucasus Mountains. The summit cone and the latest lava flows are of post-glacial age, and the latest andesitic-dacitic lava flow was radiocarbon dated at about 6000 years ago. Gushchenko (1979) listed an 800-700 BCE eruption.

Eruptive History

Summary of Holocene eruption dates and Volcanic Explosivity Indices (VEI).

Start Date Stop Date Eruption Certainty VEI Evidence Activity Area or Unit
0750 BCE ± 50 years Unknown Confirmed   Tephrochronology
4000 BCE ± 50 years Unknown Confirmed   Radiocarbon (uncorrected)

This compilation of synonyms and subsidiary features may not be comprehensive. Features are organized into four major categories: Cones, Craters, Domes, and Thermal Features. Synonyms of features appear indented below the primary name. In some cases additional feature type, elevation, or location details are provided.




Feature Name Feature Type Elevation Latitude Longitude
Kabardzhin Stratovolcano 3136 m 42° 34' 17" N 44° 33' 24" E
Stratovolcano 5034 m 42° 41' 49" N 44° 31' 9" E
Kechuttsveri Lava cone 3251 m 42° 40' 41" N 44° 33' 56" E
Lesser Tkarsheti Lava cone 2214 m 42° 36' 41" N 44° 34' 0" E
Peak Mnaisi Lava cone 3638 m 42° 41' 1" N 44° 27' 5" E
Unnamed Pyroclastic cone 1834 m 42° 40' 2" N 44° 38' 28" E
Unnamed Pyroclastic cone 1800 m 42° 36' 44" N 44° 35' 0" E
Unnamed Pyroclastic cone 1860 m 42° 35' 50" N 44° 33' 27" E
Unnamed Former cone 2870 m 42° 42' 48" N 44° 33' 32" E
Unnamed Pyroclastic cone 2120 m 42° 35' 24" N 44° 34' 44" E
Unnamed Pyroclastic cone 2354 m 42° 33' 49" N 44° 35' 21" E


Feature Name Feature Type Elevation Latitude Longitude
Narvani Fissure vent 2975 m 42° 31' 37" N 44° 33' 0" E


Feature Name Feature Type Elevation Latitude Longitude
Betlemi Dome 3219 m 42° 39' 14" N 44° 34' 20" E
Lesser Shevardeni Dome 3702 m 42° 38' 54" N 44° 30' 4" E
Milioni Dome 2857 m 42° 32' 11" N 44° 32' 25" E
    Syrh of Kazbek
Dome 3625 m 42° 38' 3" N 44° 29' 38" E
Tkarsheti Dome 3417 m 42° 38' 16" N 44° 32' 45" E
Tsitelidziri Dome 3063 m 42° 32' 18" N 44° 35' 59" E
Unnamed Dome 2645 m 42° 31' 36" N 44° 32' 3" E

Photo Gallery

The 5050-m-high, glacier-covered Kasbek stratovolcano, the second highest in the Caucasus Mountains of Georgia, lies just south of the border with Russia. The summit cone and the latest lava flows are of postglacial age, and the latest andesitic-dacitic lava flow was radiocarbon dated at about 6000 years ago. Arrows at the top left on this August 13, 2002 NASA Space Shuttle image mark the path of an avalanche and debris flow produced by collapse of a glacier the following month.

Image courtesy of Earth Sciences and Image Analysis Laboratory, NASA Johnson Space Center, 2002 (http://eol.jsc.nasa.gov).


The following references have all been used during the compilation of data for this volcano, it is not a comprehensive bibliography. Discussion of another volcano or eruption (sometimes far from the one that is the subject of the manuscript) may produce a citation that is not at all apparent from the title.

Gushchenko I I, 1979. Eruptions of Volcanoes of the World: A Catalog. Moscow: Nauka Pub, Acad Sci USSR Far Eastern Sci Center, 474 p (in Russian).

IAVCEI, 1973-80. Post-Miocene Volcanoes of the World. IAVCEI Data Sheets, Rome: Internatl Assoc Volc Chemistry Earth's Interior..

Lebedev V A, Vashakidzeb G T, 2014. The Catalogue of Quaternary Volcanoes of the Greater Caucasus Based on Geochronological, Volcanological and Isotope-Geochemical Data. Journal of Volcanology and Seismology, v. 8, no. 2, p. 93–107.

Sviatlovsky A E, 1959. Atlas of Volcanoes of the Soviet Union. Moscow: Akad Nauk SSSR, 170 p (in Russian with English summary).

Affiliated Databases

Large Eruptions of Kazbek Information about large Quaternary eruptions (VEI >= 4) is cataloged in the Large Magnitude Explosive Volcanic Eruptions (LaMEVE) database of the Volcano Global Risk Identification and Analysis Project (VOGRIPA).
WOVOdat WOVOdat is a database of volcanic unrest; instrumentally and visually recorded changes in seismicity, ground deformation, gas emission, and other parameters from their normal baselines. It is sponsored by the World Organization of Volcano Observatories (WOVO) and presently hosted at the Earth Observatory of Singapore.
EarthChem EarthChem develops and maintains databases, software, and services that support the preservation, discovery, access and analysis of geochemical data, and facilitate their integration with the broad array of other available earth science parameters. EarthChem is operated by a joint team of disciplinary scientists, data scientists, data managers and information technology developers who are part of the NSF-funded data facility Integrated Earth Data Applications (IEDA). IEDA is a collaborative effort of EarthChem and the Marine Geoscience Data System (MGDS).
Smithsonian Collections Search the Smithsonian's NMNH Department of Mineral Sciences collections database. Go to the "Search Rocks and Ores" tab and use the Volcano Name drop-down to find samples.