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  • Country
  • Volcanic Region
  • Primary Volcano Type
  • Last Known Eruption
  • 40.028°N
  • 45.74°E

  • 3029 m
    9935 ft

  • 214090
  • Latitude
  • Longitude

  • Summit

  • Volcano

The Global Volcanism Program has no activity reports for Porak.

The Global Volcanism Program has no Weekly Reports available for Porak.

The Global Volcanism Program has no Bulletin Reports available for Porak.

Basic Data

Volcano Number

Last Known Eruption



778 BCE

3029 m / 9935 ft


Volcano Types

Pyroclastic cone(s)

Rock Types

Andesite / Basaltic Andesite

Tectonic Setting

Continental crust (> 25 km)


Within 5 km
Within 10 km
Within 30 km
Within 100 km

Geological Summary

The mid-Pleistocene Porak volcano lies in the Vardenis volcanic highland about 20 km SE of Lake Sevan. The volcanic field straddles the Armenia/Azerbaijan border, and lava flows extend into both countries. The flanks are dotted with 10 satellitic cones and fissure vents. It was constructed along the active Pambak-Sevan strike-slip fault, which has bisected the mid-Pleistocene Khonarassar volcano, separating its two halves by about 800 m. Two large lava flows traveled up to 21 km north and NW, and fresh-looking lava flows form peninsulas extending into Lake Alagyol. Fifth century BCE petroglyphs were interpreted to depict volcanic eruptions (Karakhanian et al., 2002). Porak is referred to in a famous cuneiform inscription as Mount Bamni, and stratigraphic and archeological evidence indicates that an explosive eruption also producing a lava flow occurred at the time of a military battle dated to 782-773 BCE.


The following references have all been used during the compilation of data for this volcano, it is not a comprehensive bibliography.

Haroutiunian R A, 2006. The historical volcanoes of Armenia and adjacent areas revisited. J Volc Geotherm Res, 155: 334-337.

Karakhanian A, Djrbashian R, Trifonov V, Philip H, Arakelian S, Avagian A, 2002. Holocene-historical volcanism and active faults as natural risk factors for Armenia and adjacent countries. J Volc Geotherm Res, 113: 319-344.

Karakhanian A, Jrbashyan R, Trifonov V, Philip H, Arakelian S, Avagyan A, Baghdassaryan H, Davtian V, 2006. Historical volcanoes of Armenia and adjacent areas: what is revisited?. J Volc Geotherm Res, 155: 338-345.

Karakhanian A, Jrbashyan R, Trifonov V, Philip H, Arakelian S, Avagyan A, Baghdassaryan H, Davtian V, Ghoukassyan Y, 2003. Volcanic hazards in the region of the Armenian nuclear power plant. J Volc Geotherm Res, 126: 31-62.

Eruptive History

Summary of Holocene eruption dates and Volcanic Explosivity Indices (VEI).

Start Date Stop Date Eruption Certainty VEI Evidence Activity Area or Unit
[ 0740 BCE ± 2 years ] [ Unknown ] Uncertain    
0778 BCE ± 5 years Unknown Confirmed   Anthropology SW flank
4510 BCE ± 300 years Unknown Confirmed   Tephrochronology

This compilation of synonyms and subsidiary features may not be comprehensive. Features are organized into four major categories: Cones, Craters, Domes, and Thermal Features. Synonyms of features appear indented below the primary name. In some cases additional feature type, elevation, or location details are provided.




Feature Name Feature Type Elevation Latitude Longitude
Cone 40° 7' 30" N 45° 39' 30" E

Photo Gallery

A blocky lava flow extends across the foreground from a pyroclastic cone of the Porak volcanic field, located along the Vardeniss volcanic ridge about 20 km SE of Lake Sevan. The volcanic field straddles the Armenia/Azerbaijan border, and lava flows extend into both countries. This lava flow is the youngest of the volcanic field. Another flow from the same cone (located in Armenia) flowed into Lake Alagyol in Azerbaijan. Archaeological and historical evidence indicates several eruptions occurred during the Holocene.

Photo by Jim Luhr, 2004 (Smithsonian Institution).

Smithsonian Sample Collections Database

The following 3 samples associated with this volcano can be found in the Smithsonian's NMNH Department of Mineral Sciences collections. Catalog number links will open a window with more information.

Catalog Number Sample Description
NMNH 117574-126 Basalt
NMNH 117574-127 Basalt
NMNH 117574-128 Basalt

Affiliated Sites

Large Eruptions of Porak Information about large Quaternary eruptions (VEI >= 4) is cataloged in the Large Magnitude Explosive Volcanic Eruptions (LaMEVE) database of the Volcano Global Risk Identification and Analysis Project (VOGRIPA).
WOVOdat WOVOdat is a database of volcanic unrest; instrumentally and visually recorded changes in seismicity, ground deformation, gas emission, and other parameters from their normal baselines. It is sponsored by the World Organization of Volcano Observatories (WOVO) and presently hosted at the Earth Observatory of Singapore.
EarthChem EarthChem develops and maintains databases, software, and services that support the preservation, discovery, access and analysis of geochemical data, and facilitate their integration with the broad array of other available earth science parameters. EarthChem is operated by a joint team of disciplinary scientists, data scientists, data managers and information technology developers who are part of the NSF-funded data facility Integrated Earth Data Applications (IEDA). IEDA is a collaborative effort of EarthChem and the Marine Geoscience Data System (MGDS).
MODVOLC - HIGP MODIS Thermal Alert System Using infrared satellite Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) data, scientists at the Hawai'i Institute of Geophysics and Planetology, University of Hawai'i, developed an automated system called MODVOLC to map thermal hot-spots in near real time. For each MODIS image, the algorithm automatically scans each 1 km pixel within it to check for high-temperature hot-spots. When one is found the date, time, location, and intensity are recorded. MODIS looks at every square km of the Earth every 48 hours, once during the day and once during the night, and the presence of two MODIS sensors in space allows at least four hot-spot observations every two days. Each day updated global maps are compiled to display the locations of all hot spots detected in the previous 24 hours. There is a drop-down list with volcano names which allow users to 'zoom-in' and examine the distribution of hot-spots at a variety of spatial scales.
MIROVA Middle InfraRed Observation of Volcanic Activity (MIROVA) is a near real time volcanic hot-spot detection system based on the analysis of MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) data. In particular, MIROVA uses the Middle InfraRed Radiation (MIR), measured over target volcanoes, in order to detect, locate and measure the heat radiation sourced from volcanic activity.