Alid

Photo of this volcano
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  • Country
  • Volcanic Region
  • Primary Volcano Type
  • Last Known Eruption
  • 14.88°N
  • 39.92°E

  • 904 m
    2965 ft

  • 221040
  • Latitude
  • Longitude

  • Summit
    Elevation

  • Volcano
    Number

The Global Volcanism Program has no activity reports for Alid.

The Global Volcanism Program has no Weekly Reports available for Alid.

The Global Volcanism Program has no Bulletin Reports available for Alid.

Basic Data

Volcano Number

Last Known Eruption

Elevation

Latitude
Longitude
221040

Unknown - Evidence Credible

904 m / 2965 ft

14.88°N
39.92°E

Volcano Types

Stratovolcano
Caldera

Rock Types

Major
Rhyolite
Basalt / Picro-Basalt
Andesite / Basaltic Andesite
Trachyandesite / Basaltic trachy-andesite
Trachyte / Trachyandesite

Tectonic Setting

Rift zone
Intermediate crust (15-25 km)

Population

Within 5 km
Within 10 km
Within 30 km
Within 100 km
517
2,447
25,942
1,216,179

Geological Summary

Alid is an isolated, dissected volcano in the central Danakil depression. The volcano is elongated in an E-W direction perpendicular to the orientation of the Alid graben. Alid consists of a structural dome of uplifted sedimentary rocks, capped by basaltic-to-rhyolitic lava flows, that rises 700 m above the graben floor. Late-stage rhyolitic eruptions during the late Pleistocene ejected rhyolitic pumice. Steep-sided lava flows drape the flanks of the structural dome, which was produced by intrusion of a silicic magma body. A 2 x 3 km graben cuts the top of the dome, and the crater that produced the plinian eruption occupies the western third of the summit depression. Vast lava fields of probable Holocene age originating from fissure vents bank up against the flanks of Alid to the NW and SE. Small cones and craters that were the source of the flows are localized along NNW-trending fissures. Fumarolic activity continues from broad areas on the northern summit and flank.

References

The following references have all been used during the compilation of data for this volcano, it is not a comprehensive bibliography.

CNR-CNRS Afar Team, 1973. Geology of northern Afar (Ethiopia). Rev Geog Phys Geol Dynam, 15: 443-490.

Duffield W A, Bullen T D, Clynne M A, Fournier R O, Janik C J, Lanphere M A, Lowenstern J, Smith J G, W/Giorgis L, Kahsai G, W/Mariam K, Tesfai T, 1997. Geothermal potential of the Alid volcanic center, Danakil Depression, Eritrea. U S Geol Surv Open-File Rpt, 97-291: 1-62.

Richard J J, Neumann van Padang M, 1957. Africa and the Red Sea. Catalog of Active Volcanoes of the World and Solfatara Fields, Rome: IAVCEI 4: 1-118.

WoldeGabriel G, 1987. (pers. comm.).

Wood C A, 1980. (pers. comm.).

The Global Volcanism Program is not aware of any Holocene eruptions from Alid. If this volcano has had large eruptions (VEI >= 4) prior to 10,000 years ago, information might be found on the Alid page in the LaMEVE (Large Magnitude Explosive Volcanic Eruptions) database, a part of the Volcano Global Risk Identification and Analysis Project (VOGRIPA).

This compilation of synonyms and subsidiary features may not be comprehensive. Features are organized into four major categories: Cones, Craters, Domes, and Thermal Features. Synonyms of features appear indented below the primary name. In some cases additional feature type, elevation, or location details are provided.


Synonyms

Alit

Thermal

Feature Name Feature Type Elevation Latitude Longitude
Abakri Fumarole
Airole Fumarole 760 m
As'ela Fumarole
Darere Fumarole
Hulma Fumarole 230 m
Humbebet Fumarole
Ilegedi Fumarole

Photo Gallery


A Landsat thematic mapper image shows the elongated Alid volcanic complex in the center of the photo, flanked by darker areas of younger basaltic lava flows in the Alid graben. Crustal spreading in the Danakil spreading center is occurring in the direction of the arrows. The Alid volcanic center is a structural dome that is elongated in a direction perpendicular to the axis of the 15-km-wide graben and rises about 700 m above its floor. Precambrian basement rocks on either side of the graben are uplifted 300-2500 m.

Image by U.S. Geological Survey, 1996 (courtesy of Wendell Duffield).
The elongated Alid volcano, which sits on the axis of the Danakil spreading center, is seen here from the west. Most of the flanks of the volcano in this view are composed of dipping rhyolitic lava flows; the light-colored area along the right skyline is rhyolitic pumice. The summit of the volcano is elongated in an E-W direction and contains a 1 x 1.5 km wide, 100-m-deep crater at the western end. Vast lava fields originating from fissure vents in the Alid graben extend to the NW and SE of the volcano. Vigorous fumarolic activity continues at Alid.

Photo by Wendell Duffield, 1996 (U.S. Geological Survey).
The lower SE flank of Alid consists of a series of steeply dipping rhyolitic lava flows of late-Pleistocene age. In addition to these flows, the outer flanks of Alid are armored by dipping lava flows of basaltic-to-andesitic composition, with local rhyolitic lava flows and domes. These rocks were uplifted by a silicic magma body that was intruded into the upper crust of Danakil Depression during the Pleistocene. The magma body in part erupted to form rhyolitic pumice that drapes part of the upper part of the structural dome.

Photo by Wendell Duffield, 1996 (U.S. Geological Survey).
Uplift of the Alid structural dome exposes thick sequences of reddish, well-stratified siltstone beds, some very fossilifeorus, which accumulated in a tidal or inter-tidal environment. A couple of very light-colored horizons within the section are anhydrite beds, presumabily from the drying up of this wet environment where the fossiliferous limestone accumulated. High in the sequence there are some pillow basalts. At the very top of the sequence on the left is a few-meters-thick cover of light-colored rhyolitic plinian pumice fallout.

Photo by Wendell Duffield, 1996 (U.S. Geological Survey).
Very young basaltic lava flows bank against the northern base of Alid volcano. Basaltic cones in the background are some of the vent areas for these basaltic lava flows, which post-date the formation of Alid volcano and are often oriented along NNW-trending fissures. The youngest volcanic unit at Alid is agglutinated spatter on the NW side of Alid that originated from vents either on Alid or within the northern basalt field.

Photo by Wendell Duffield, 1996 (U.S. Geological Survey).

Smithsonian Sample Collections Database


A listing of samples from the Smithsonian collections will be available soon.

Affiliated Sites

Large Eruptions of Alid Information about large Quaternary eruptions (VEI >= 4) is cataloged in the Large Magnitude Explosive Volcanic Eruptions (LaMEVE) database of the Volcano Global Risk Identification and Analysis Project (VOGRIPA).
WOVOdat WOVOdat is a database of volcanic unrest; instrumentally and visually recorded changes in seismicity, ground deformation, gas emission, and other parameters from their normal baselines. It is sponsored by the World Organization of Volcano Observatories (WOVO) and presently hosted at the Earth Observatory of Singapore.
EarthChem EarthChem develops and maintains databases, software, and services that support the preservation, discovery, access and analysis of geochemical data, and facilitate their integration with the broad array of other available earth science parameters. EarthChem is operated by a joint team of disciplinary scientists, data scientists, data managers and information technology developers who are part of the NSF-funded data facility Integrated Earth Data Applications (IEDA). IEDA is a collaborative effort of EarthChem and the Marine Geoscience Data System (MGDS).
MODVOLC - HIGP MODIS Thermal Alert System Using infrared satellite Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) data, scientists at the Hawai'i Institute of Geophysics and Planetology, University of Hawai'i, developed an automated system called MODVOLC to map thermal hot-spots in near real time. For each MODIS image, the algorithm automatically scans each 1 km pixel within it to check for high-temperature hot-spots. When one is found the date, time, location, and intensity are recorded. MODIS looks at every square km of the Earth every 48 hours, once during the day and once during the night, and the presence of two MODIS sensors in space allows at least four hot-spot observations every two days. Each day updated global maps are compiled to display the locations of all hot spots detected in the previous 24 hours. There is a drop-down list with volcano names which allow users to 'zoom-in' and examine the distribution of hot-spots at a variety of spatial scales.
MIROVA Middle InfraRed Observation of Volcanic Activity (MIROVA) is a near real time volcanic hot-spot detection system based on the analysis of MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) data. In particular, MIROVA uses the Middle InfraRed Radiation (MIR), measured over target volcanoes, in order to detect, locate and measure the heat radiation sourced from volcanic activity.