Dubbi

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  • Country
  • Volcanic Region
  • Primary Volcano Type
  • Last Known Eruption
  • 13.579°N
  • 41.809°E

  • 1625 m
    5330 ft

  • 221100
  • Latitude
  • Longitude

  • Summit
    Elevation

  • Volcano
    Number

The Global Volcanism Program has no activity reports for Dubbi.

The Global Volcanism Program has no Weekly Reports available for Dubbi.

The Global Volcanism Program has no Bulletin Reports available for Dubbi.

Basic Data

Volcano Number

Last Known Eruption

Elevation

Latitude
Longitude
221100

1861 CE

1625 m / 5330 ft

13.579°N
41.809°E

Volcano Types

Stratovolcano
Pyroclastic cone(s)
Lava dome(s)

Rock Types

Major
Basalt / Picro-Basalt
Trachybasalt / Tephrite Basanite
Minor
Trachyandesite / Basaltic trachy-andesite
Trachyte / Trachyandesite
Rhyolite

Tectonic Setting

Rift zone
Intermediate crust (15-25 km)

Population

Within 5 km
Within 10 km
Within 30 km
Within 100 km
0
0
18
14,867

Geological Summary

Dubbi, located east of the Erta Ale Range and south of the crystalline basement rocks of the Danakil Alps, is a large volcanic massif that rises to 1625 m above the western shore of the Red Sea. About 20 small cinder cones are located at the summit, and extensive basaltic lava fields to the north and NE, known as the Edd lava field, cover an area of 2700 sq km and reach the Red Sea coast. The two most-recent eruptive centers are fissure systems that extend NW-SE and NNE-SSW. The former produced lava flows that reached the Red Sea in 1400 CE. The second created 19 small craters at the summit in 1861. Ash fell more than 300 km from the volcano. Two villages were destroyed and more than 100 persons were killed during Africa's largest eruption in historical time. Lava flows from the 1861 eruption traveled as far as 22 km and reached the coast.

References

The following references have all been used during the compilation of data for this volcano, it is not a comprehensive bibliography.

CNR-CNRS Afar Team, 1973. Geology of northern Afar (Ethiopia). Rev Geog Phys Geol Dynam, 15: 443-490.

De Fino M, La Volpe L, Lirer L, 1978. Geology and volcanology of the Edd-Bahar Assoli area (Ethiopia). Bull Volc, 41: 32-42.

Richard J J, Neumann van Padang M, 1957. Africa and the Red Sea. Catalog of Active Volcanoes of the World and Solfatara Fields, Rome: IAVCEI 4: 1-118.

Wiart P, Oppenheimer C, 2000. Largest known historical eruption in Africa: Dubbi volcano, Eritrea, 1861. Geology, 28: 291-294.

Wiart P, Oppenheimer C, 2005. Large magnitude silicic volcanism in north Afar: the Nabro volcanic range and Ma'alalta volcano. Bull Volc, 67: 99-115.

Eruptive History


Summary of Holocene eruption dates and Volcanic Explosivity Indices (VEI).


Start Date Stop Date Eruption Certainty VEI Evidence Activity Area or Unit
[ 1900 (?) ] [ Unknown ] Uncertain    
[ 1863 ] [ Unknown ] Uncertain 2  
1861 May 8 1861 Oct (?) Confirmed 3 Historical Observations
1400 Jul 15 ± 45 days Unknown Confirmed 2 Historical Observations

This compilation of synonyms and subsidiary features may not be comprehensive. Features are organized into four major categories: Cones, Craters, Domes, and Thermal Features. Synonyms of features appear indented below the primary name. In some cases additional feature type, elevation, or location details are provided.


Synonyms

Edd, Volcano of | Dubbey, Gebel | Dubbeh, Djebel

Cones

Feature Name Feature Type Elevation Latitude Longitude
Edd Lava Field Volcanic field

Craters

Feature Name Feature Type Elevation Latitude Longitude
Arooma Crater
Kod Ali Crater 13° 57' 0" N 41° 49' 0" E

Domes

Feature Name Feature Type Elevation Latitude Longitude
Mabda Dome

Photo Gallery


Dark-colored lava flows radiate away from the summit of Dubbi volcano in this Space Shuttle image with the Red Sea at the upper right. The two most recent eruptions were fed by fissure systems that extend NW-SE and NNE-SSW. The former produced lava flows that reached the Red Sea in 1400 AD. Lava flows from the 1861 eruption traveled as far as 22 km to the east and also reached the coast.

Photo S-61A-36, 1985 (National Aeronautical and Space Administration).

Smithsonian Sample Collections Database


A listing of samples from the Smithsonian collections will be available soon.

Affiliated Sites

Large Eruptions of Dubbi Information about large Quaternary eruptions (VEI >= 4) is cataloged in the Large Magnitude Explosive Volcanic Eruptions (LaMEVE) database of the Volcano Global Risk Identification and Analysis Project (VOGRIPA).
WOVOdat WOVOdat is a database of volcanic unrest; instrumentally and visually recorded changes in seismicity, ground deformation, gas emission, and other parameters from their normal baselines. It is sponsored by the World Organization of Volcano Observatories (WOVO) and presently hosted at the Earth Observatory of Singapore.
EarthChem EarthChem develops and maintains databases, software, and services that support the preservation, discovery, access and analysis of geochemical data, and facilitate their integration with the broad array of other available earth science parameters. EarthChem is operated by a joint team of disciplinary scientists, data scientists, data managers and information technology developers who are part of the NSF-funded data facility Integrated Earth Data Applications (IEDA). IEDA is a collaborative effort of EarthChem and the Marine Geoscience Data System (MGDS).
MODVOLC - HIGP MODIS Thermal Alert System Using infrared satellite Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) data, scientists at the Hawai'i Institute of Geophysics and Planetology, University of Hawai'i, developed an automated system called MODVOLC to map thermal hot-spots in near real time. For each MODIS image, the algorithm automatically scans each 1 km pixel within it to check for high-temperature hot-spots. When one is found the date, time, location, and intensity are recorded. MODIS looks at every square km of the Earth every 48 hours, once during the day and once during the night, and the presence of two MODIS sensors in space allows at least four hot-spot observations every two days. Each day updated global maps are compiled to display the locations of all hot spots detected in the previous 24 hours. There is a drop-down list with volcano names which allow users to 'zoom-in' and examine the distribution of hot-spots at a variety of spatial scales.
MIROVA Middle InfraRed Observation of Volcanic Activity (MIROVA) is a near real time volcanic hot-spot detection system based on the analysis of MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) data. In particular, MIROVA uses the Middle InfraRed Radiation (MIR), measured over target volcanoes, in order to detect, locate and measure the heat radiation sourced from volcanic activity.