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  • Country
  • Volcanic Region
  • Primary Volcano Type
  • Last Known Eruption
  • 13.579°N
  • 41.809°E

  • 1625 m
    5330 ft

  • 221100
  • Latitude
  • Longitude

  • Summit

  • Volcano

The Global Volcanism Program has no activity reports for Dubbi.

The Global Volcanism Program has no Weekly Reports available for Dubbi.

The Global Volcanism Program has no Bulletin Reports available for Dubbi.

Volcano Types

Pyroclastic cone(s)
Lava dome(s)

Tectonic Setting

Rift zone
Intermediate crust (15-25 km)

Rock Types

Basalt / Picro-Basalt
Trachybasalt / Tephrite Basanite
Trachyandesite / Basaltic trachy-andesite
Trachyte / Trachyandesite


Within 5 km
Within 10 km
Within 30 km
Within 100 km

Geological Summary

Dubbi, located east of the Erta Ale Range and south of the crystalline basement rocks of the Danakil Alps, is a large volcanic massif that rises to 1625 m above the western shore of the Red Sea. About 20 small cinder cones are located at the summit, and extensive basaltic lava fields to the north and NE, known as the Edd lava field, cover an area of 2700 sq km and reach the Red Sea coast. The two most-recent eruptive centers are fissure systems that extend NW-SE and NNE-SSW. The former produced lava flows that reached the Red Sea in 1400 CE. The second created 19 small craters at the summit in 1861. Ash fell more than 300 km from the volcano. Two villages were destroyed and more than 100 persons were killed during Africa's largest eruption in historical time. Lava flows from the 1861 eruption traveled as far as 22 km and reached the coast.

Eruptive History

Summary of Holocene eruption dates and Volcanic Explosivity Indices (VEI).

Start Date Stop Date Eruption Certainty VEI Evidence Activity Area or Unit
[ 1900 (?) ] [ Unknown ] Uncertain    
[ 1863 ] [ Unknown ] Uncertain 2  
1861 May 8 1861 Oct (?) Confirmed 3 Historical Observations
1400 Jul 15 ± 45 days Unknown Confirmed 2 Historical Observations

This compilation of synonyms and subsidiary features may not be comprehensive. Features are organized into four major categories: Cones, Craters, Domes, and Thermal Features. Synonyms of features appear indented below the primary name. In some cases additional feature type, elevation, or location details are provided.


Edd, Volcano of | Dubbey, Gebel | Dubbeh, Djebel


Feature Name Feature Type Elevation Latitude Longitude
Edd Lava Field Volcanic field


Feature Name Feature Type Elevation Latitude Longitude
Arooma Crater
Kod Ali Crater 13° 57' 0" N 41° 49' 0" E


Feature Name Feature Type Elevation Latitude Longitude
Mabda Dome

Photo Gallery

Dark-colored lava flows radiate away from the summit of Dubbi volcano in this Space Shuttle image with the Red Sea at the upper right. The two most recent eruptions were fed by fissure systems that extend NW-SE and NNE-SSW. The former produced lava flows that reached the Red Sea in 1400 AD. Lava flows from the 1861 eruption traveled as far as 22 km to the east and also reached the coast.

Photo S-61A-36, 1985 (National Aeronautical and Space Administration).


The following references have all been used during the compilation of data for this volcano, it is not a comprehensive bibliography. Discussion of another volcano or eruption (sometimes far from the one that is the subject of the manuscript) may produce a citation that is not at all apparent from the title.

CNR-CNRS Afar Team, 1973. Geology of northern Afar (Ethiopia). Rev Geog Phys Geol Dynam, 15: 443-490.

De Fino M, La Volpe L, Lirer L, 1978. Geology and volcanology of the Edd-Bahar Assoli area (Ethiopia). Bull Volc, 41: 32-42.

Richard J J, Neumann van Padang M, 1957. Africa and the Red Sea. Catalog of Active Volcanoes of the World and Solfatara Fields, Rome: IAVCEI 4: 1-118.

Wiart P, Oppenheimer C, 2000. Largest known historical eruption in Africa: Dubbi volcano, Eritrea, 1861. Geology, 28: 291-294.

Wiart P, Oppenheimer C, 2005. Large magnitude silicic volcanism in north Afar: the Nabro volcanic range and Ma'alalta volcano. Bull Volc, 67: 99-115.

Affiliated Databases

Large Eruptions of Dubbi Information about large Quaternary eruptions (VEI >= 4) is cataloged in the Large Magnitude Explosive Volcanic Eruptions (LaMEVE) database of the Volcano Global Risk Identification and Analysis Project (VOGRIPA).
WOVOdat WOVOdat is a database of volcanic unrest; instrumentally and visually recorded changes in seismicity, ground deformation, gas emission, and other parameters from their normal baselines. It is sponsored by the World Organization of Volcano Observatories (WOVO) and presently hosted at the Earth Observatory of Singapore.
EarthChem EarthChem develops and maintains databases, software, and services that support the preservation, discovery, access and analysis of geochemical data, and facilitate their integration with the broad array of other available earth science parameters. EarthChem is operated by a joint team of disciplinary scientists, data scientists, data managers and information technology developers who are part of the NSF-funded data facility Integrated Earth Data Applications (IEDA). IEDA is a collaborative effort of EarthChem and the Marine Geoscience Data System (MGDS).
Smithsonian Collections Search the Smithsonian's NMNH Department of Mineral Sciences collections database. Go to the "Search Rocks and Ores" tab and use the Volcano Name drop-down to find samples.