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The massive Alayta shield volcano covers an area of 2700 sq km in the western Danakil depression SW of Lake Afrera. A series of very recent craters is aligned along the NNW-trending axis of the basaltic-to-trachytic shield. The lava field, covered by very fresh flows, was erupted from N-S-trending fissures along the east side of the shield volcano and laps up against the western flank of Afderà volcano. Two historical eruptions that were formerly attributed to Afderà actually originated from Alayta. One of those eruptions, in 1907, produced a large lava flow from a SE-flank vent. Fumarolic activity occurs at two locations in the southern part of the complex.
Summary of Holocene eruption dates and Volcanic Explosivity Indices (VEI).
|Start Date||Stop Date||Eruption Certainty||VEI||Evidence||Activity Area or Unit|
|1907 Jun||1907 Aug 4 (in or after)||Confirmed||2||Historical Observations||SE flank|
This compilation of synonyms and subsidiary features may not be comprehensive. Features are organized into four major categories: Cones, Craters, Domes, and Thermal Features. Synonyms of features appear indented below the primary name. In some cases additional feature type, elevation, or location details are provided.
|Feature Name||Feature Type||Elevation||Latitude||Longitude|
|The massive Alayta shield volcano (center) covers an area of 2700 sq km in the western Danakil depression SW of Lake Afrera (upper right). The volcanic consists of two parts--an elongated shield volcano on the west (medium-toned) and an extensive lava field forming the dark-colored area on the eastern flank of the shield volcano. The Alayta lava field, covered by very fresh lava flows (the most recent of which was erupted in 1907), was erupted from N-S-trending fissures and laps up against the western flank of Afderà volcano (immediately SW of Lake Afrera).
Photo by National Aeronautical and Space Administration (NASA), 1984.
|The elongated massif extending down the center of the image is Alayta shield volcano, which covers an area of 2700 sq km in the western Danakil depression. A series of very recent craters is aligned along the NNW-trending axis of the basaltic-to-trachytic shield. The Alayta lava field, covered by very fresh lava flows, was erupted from N-S-trending fissures along the east side of the shield volcano and laps up against the western flank of Afderà volcano, immediately south of Lake Guilietti (Lake Afrera) at the upper right-center.
NASA Landsat image, 1999 (courtesy of Hawaii Synergy Project, Univ. of Hawaii Institute of Geophysics & Planetology).
The following references have all been used during the compilation of data for this volcano, it is not a comprehensive bibliography. Discussion of another volcano or eruption (sometimes far from the one that is the subject of the manuscript) may produce a citation that is not at all apparent from the title.
CNR-CNRS, 1975. Geological Maps of Afar: 1, Northern Afar (1971); 2, Central and Southern Afar (1975). La Celle St Cloud, France: Geotechnip.
CNR-CNRS Afar Team, 1973. Geology of northern Afar (Ethiopia). Rev Geog Phys Geol Dynam, 15: 443-490.
Wiart P, Oppenheimer C, 2005. Large magnitude silicic volcanism in north Afar: the Nabro volcanic range and Ma'alalta volcano. Bull Volc, 67: 99-115.
Wood C A, 1978. . (pers. comm.).