Alayta

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  • Country
  • Volcanic Region
  • Primary Volcano Type
  • Last Known Eruption
  • 12.888°N
  • 40.573°E

  • 1496 m
    4907 ft

  • 221112
  • Latitude
  • Longitude

  • Summit
    Elevation

  • Volcano
    Number

The Global Volcanism Program has no activity reports for Alayta.

The Global Volcanism Program has no Weekly Reports available for Alayta.

The Global Volcanism Program has no Bulletin Reports available for Alayta.

The massive Alayta shield volcano covers an area of 2700 sq km in the western Danakil depression SW of Lake Afrera. A series of very recent craters is aligned along the NNW-trending axis of the basaltic-to-trachytic shield. The lava field, covered by very fresh flows, was erupted from N-S-trending fissures along the east side of the shield volcano and laps up against the western flank of Afderà volcano. Two historical eruptions that were formerly attributed to Afderà actually originated from Alayta. One of those eruptions, in 1907, produced a large lava flow from a SE-flank vent. Fumarolic activity occurs at two locations in the southern part of the complex.

Summary of Holocene eruption dates and Volcanic Explosivity Indices (VEI).

Start Date Stop Date Eruption Certainty VEI Evidence Activity Area or Unit
1915 Unknown Confirmed 2 Historical Observations
1907 Jun 1907 Aug 4 (in or after) Confirmed 2 Historical Observations SE flank

This compilation of synonyms and subsidiary features may not be comprehensive. Features are organized into four major categories: Cones, Craters, Domes, and Thermal Features. Synonyms of features appear indented below the primary name. In some cases additional feature type, elevation, or location details are provided.


Synonyms

Urikomam

Cones

Feature Name Feature Type Elevation Latitude Longitude
Alayta Shield volcano
The massive Alayta shield volcano (center) covers an area of 2700 sq km in the western Danakil depression SW of Lake Afrera (upper right). The volcanic consists of two parts--an elongated shield volcano on the west (medium-toned) and an extensive lava field forming the dark-colored area on the eastern flank of the shield volcano. The Alayta lava field, covered by very fresh lava flows (the most recent of which was erupted in 1907), was erupted from N-S-trending fissures and laps up against the western flank of Afderà volcano (immediately SW of Lake Afrera).

Photo by National Aeronautical and Space Administration (NASA), 1984.
The elongated massif extending down the center of the image is Alayta shield volcano, which covers an area of 2700 sq km in the western Danakil depression. A series of very recent craters is aligned along the NNW-trending axis of the basaltic-to-trachytic shield. The Alayta lava field, covered by very fresh lava flows, was erupted from N-S-trending fissures along the east side of the shield volcano and laps up against the western flank of Afderà volcano, immediately south of Lake Guilietti (Lake Afrera) at the upper right-center.

NASA Landsat image, 1999 (courtesy of Hawaii Synergy Project, Univ. of Hawaii Institute of Geophysics & Planetology).

The following references have all been used during the compilation of data for this volcano, it is not a comprehensive bibliography. Discussion of another volcano or eruption (sometimes far from the one that is the subject of the manuscript) may produce a citation that is not at all apparent from the title.

CNR-CNRS, 1975. Geological Maps of Afar: 1, Northern Afar (1971); 2, Central and Southern Afar (1975). La Celle St Cloud, France: Geotechnip.

CNR-CNRS Afar Team, 1973. Geology of northern Afar (Ethiopia). Rev Geog Phys Geol Dynam, 15: 443-490.

Wiart P, Oppenheimer C, 2005. Large magnitude silicic volcanism in north Afar: the Nabro volcanic range and Ma'alalta volcano. Bull Volc, 67: 99-115.

Wood C A, 1978. . (pers. comm.).

Volcano Types

Shield
Fissure vent(s)

Tectonic Setting

Rift zone
Intermediate crust (15-25 km)

Rock Types

Major
Basalt / Picro-Basalt
Trachyte / Trachyandesite
Trachyandesite / Basaltic trachy-andesite

Population

Within 5 km
Within 10 km
Within 30 km
Within 100 km
156
925
13,459
330,411

Affiliated Databases

Large Eruptions of Alayta Information about large Quaternary eruptions (VEI >= 4) is cataloged in the Large Magnitude Explosive Volcanic Eruptions (LaMEVE) database of the Volcano Global Risk Identification and Analysis Project (VOGRIPA).
WOVOdat WOVOdat is a database of volcanic unrest; instrumentally and visually recorded changes in seismicity, ground deformation, gas emission, and other parameters from their normal baselines. It is sponsored by the World Organization of Volcano Observatories (WOVO) and presently hosted at the Earth Observatory of Singapore.
EarthChem EarthChem develops and maintains databases, software, and services that support the preservation, discovery, access and analysis of geochemical data, and facilitate their integration with the broad array of other available earth science parameters. EarthChem is operated by a joint team of disciplinary scientists, data scientists, data managers and information technology developers who are part of the NSF-funded data facility Integrated Earth Data Applications (IEDA). IEDA is a collaborative effort of EarthChem and the Marine Geoscience Data System (MGDS).
Smithsonian Collections Search the Smithsonian's NMNH Department of Mineral Sciences collections database. Go to the "Search Rocks and Ores" tab and use the Volcano Name drop-down to find samples.