Central Island

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  • Country
  • Volcanic Region
  • Primary Volcano Type
  • Last Known Eruption
  • 3.5°N
  • 36.042°E

  • 550 m
    1804 ft

  • 222010
  • Latitude
  • Longitude

  • Summit
    Elevation

  • Volcano
    Number

The Global Volcanism Program has no activity reports for Central Island.

The Global Volcanism Program has no Weekly Reports available for Central Island.

The Global Volcanism Program has no Bulletin Reports available for Central Island.

Central Island, also known as Crocodile Island, occupies the middle of Lake Turkana and is composed of more than a dozen craters and cones, three of which are filled by small lakes. The two largest lakes partially fill craters up to a km wide and about 80 m deep whose floors lie near sea level. The highest point on the dominantly basaltic island reaches 550 m, about 170 m above the lake surface. An E-W-trending chain of small explosion craters cuts the eastern side of the 3-km-wide island. Several small islands to the SE represent partially submerged crater rims, and other cones and lava plugs lie beneath the lake surface near the island. The youngest Central Islands tuffs and lavas may be as young as Holocene (Karson and Curtis, 1992). Fumarolic activity is concentrated along the NE-to-SE rim of the central crater, and sprays of sulfur from the fumaroles were observed by visitors in the 1930s. In 1974 intense emission of molten sulfur and steam clouds were seen from the mainland.

Summary of Holocene eruption dates and Volcanic Explosivity Indices (VEI).

Start Date Stop Date Eruption Certainty VEI Evidence Activity Area or Unit
[ 1974 Jul 22 (?) ] [ 1974 Jul 27 ± 1 days ] Uncertain 1   East side of Central Island

This compilation of synonyms and subsidiary features may not be comprehensive. Features are organized into four major categories: Cones, Craters, Domes, and Thermal Features. Synonyms of features appear indented below the primary name. In some cases additional feature type, elevation, or location details are provided.


Synonyms

Crocodile Island | Basso Narok | Fuchich | Gallop | Bor Gheleba | Bass Marle | Boi | Buzz

Craters

Feature Name Feature Type Elevation Latitude Longitude
Bird Nest Island Crater
Broken Island Crater
Bug Island Crater
Chain of Craters Crater
Crocodile Lake Crater
Dry Crater Crater
Flamingo Lake Crater
Tilapia Lake Crater
A compound lake-filled crater occupies the SW side of Central Island in the middle of Lake Turkana. A small young crater (left central) cuts the northern rim of the tuff cone, and another large crater whose lake is barely visible lies behind it. These lakes partially fill craters up to a km wide and about 80 m deep whose floors lie near sea level. The small islands (upper right) south of Central Island are part of the volcanic complex, and other cones and lava plugs lie beneath the lake surface. The eastern shore of Lake Turkana is visible on the horizon.

Photo by Martin Smith, 1993 (copyright British Geological Survey, NERC).

The following references have all been used during the compilation of data for this volcano, it is not a comprehensive bibliography. Discussion of another volcano or eruption (sometimes far from the one that is the subject of the manuscript) may produce a citation that is not at all apparent from the title.

Bloomer S H, Curtis P C, Karson J A, 1989. Geochemical variation of Quaternary basaltic volcanoes in the Turkana Rift, northern Kenya. J African Earth Sci, 8: 511-532.

Dunkley P N, Smith M, Allen D A, Darling W G, 1993. The geothermal activity and geology of the northern sector of the Kenya Rift Valley. Brit Geol Surv Res Rpt, SC/93/1: 1-185.

Ferguson A J D, Harbott B J, 1982. Geographical, physical and chemical aspects of Lake Turkana. In: Hopson A J (ed) {Lake Turkana: a Report on the Findings of the Lake Turkana Project 1972-75}, London: Rpt Overseas Devel Admin, p 1-107.

Karson J A, Curtis P C, 1994. Axial Quaternary volcanic centers in the Turkana rift, N. Kenya. J African Earth Sci, 18: 15-35.

Richard J J, Neumann van Padang M, 1957. Africa and the Red Sea. Catalog of Active Volcanoes of the World and Solfatara Fields, Rome: IAVCEI 4: 1-118.

Wilkinson A F, 1988. Geology of the Allia Bay area. Rpt Mines Geol Dept Kenya, 109: 1-54.

Volcano Types

Tuff cone(s)
Tuff ring(s)

Tectonic Setting

Rift zone
Continental crust (> 25 km)

Rock Types

Major
Basalt / Picro-Basalt
Trachyandesite / Basaltic trachy-andesite
Trachyte / Trachyandesite

Population

Within 5 km
Within 10 km
Within 30 km
Within 100 km
28
28
10,253
216,485

Affiliated Databases

Large Eruptions of Central Island Information about large Quaternary eruptions (VEI >= 4) is cataloged in the Large Magnitude Explosive Volcanic Eruptions (LaMEVE) database of the Volcano Global Risk Identification and Analysis Project (VOGRIPA).
WOVOdat WOVOdat is a database of volcanic unrest; instrumentally and visually recorded changes in seismicity, ground deformation, gas emission, and other parameters from their normal baselines. It is sponsored by the World Organization of Volcano Observatories (WOVO) and presently hosted at the Earth Observatory of Singapore.
EarthChem EarthChem develops and maintains databases, software, and services that support the preservation, discovery, access and analysis of geochemical data, and facilitate their integration with the broad array of other available earth science parameters. EarthChem is operated by a joint team of disciplinary scientists, data scientists, data managers and information technology developers who are part of the NSF-funded data facility Integrated Earth Data Applications (IEDA). IEDA is a collaborative effort of EarthChem and the Marine Geoscience Data System (MGDS).
Smithsonian Collections Search the Smithsonian's NMNH Department of Mineral Sciences collections database. Go to the "Search Rocks and Ores" tab and use the Volcano Name drop-down to find samples.