Photo of this volcano
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  • Country
  • Volcanic Region
  • Primary Volcano Type
  • Last Known Eruption
  • 1.5°N
  • 36.33°E

  • 1328 m
    4356 ft

  • 222051
  • Latitude
  • Longitude

  • Summit

  • Volcano

The Global Volcanism Program has no activity reports for Emuruangogolak.

The Global Volcanism Program has no Weekly Reports available for Emuruangogolak.

The Global Volcanism Program has no Bulletin Reports available for Emuruangogolak.

Basic Data

Volcano Number

Last Known Eruption



1910 CE

1328 m / 4356 ft


Volcano Types

Pyroclastic cone(s)

Rock Types

Trachyte / Trachyandesite
Basalt / Picro-Basalt

Tectonic Setting

Rift zone
Continental crust (> 25 km)


Within 5 km
Within 10 km
Within 30 km
Within 100 km

Geological Summary

The broad Emuruangogolak shield volcano is situated at a narrow constriction in the Gregory Rift and almost completely straddles it. A 5 x 3.5 km summit caldera formed about 38,000 years ago. Since then trachytic and basaltic lava flows were erupted on the northern and southern flanks and within the caldera. A NNE-SSW-trending chain of lake-filled basaltic maars extends along the floor of the rift from the lower flanks of the volcano. Young lava flows were also erupted from vents along rift valley faults. Well-preserved parasitic cones erupted along rift-parallel faults cutting the volcano abound; the latest eruption produced a trachytic lava flow dated from secular magnetic variation measurements at about the beginning of the 20th century. Fumarolic activity and hot steaming ground occurs along NNE-trending fissures within the caldera and along the lower NW flanks.


The following references have all been used during the compilation of data for this volcano, it is not a comprehensive bibliography.

Dunkley P N, Smith M, Allen D A, Darling W G, 1993. The geothermal activity and geology of the northern sector of the Kenya Rift Valley. Brit Geol Surv Res Rpt, SC/93/1: 1-185.

Key R M, 1987a. Geology of the Maralal area. Rpt Mines Geol Dept Kenya, 105: 1-93.

Skinner N J, Iles W, Brock A, 1975. The recent secular variation of declination and inclination in Kenya. Earth Planet Sci Lett, 25: 338-346.

Weaver S D, 1976-77. The Quaternary caldera volcano Emuruangogolak, Kenya Rift, and the petrology of a bimodal ferrobasalt pantelleritic trachyte association. Bull Volc, 40: 209-230.

Williams L A J, Macdonald R, Chapman G R, 1984. Late Quaternary caldera volcanoes of the Kenya Rift Valley. J Geophys Res, 89: 8553-8570.

Eruptive History

Summary of Holocene eruption dates and Volcanic Explosivity Indices (VEI).

Start Date Stop Date Eruption Certainty VEI Evidence Activity Area or Unit
1910 ± 50 years Unknown Confirmed 0 Magnetism South caldera rim
1700 ± 100 years Unknown Confirmed 0 Radiocarbon (uncorrected) South caldera rim
1300 ± 150 years Unknown Confirmed 0 Magnetism NE flank
1230 ± 150 years Unknown Confirmed 0 Magnetism NE flank
1160 ± 150 years Unknown Confirmed 0 Magnetism NE flank
1120 ± 150 years Unknown Confirmed 0 Magnetism North flank
6550 BCE ± 1500 years Unknown Confirmed   Tephrochronology North flank
8050 BCE ± 1000 years Unknown Confirmed   Radiocarbon (uncorrected) North flank

This compilation of synonyms and subsidiary features may not be comprehensive. Features are organized into four major categories: Cones, Craters, Domes, and Thermal Features. Synonyms of features appear indented below the primary name. In some cases additional feature type, elevation, or location details are provided.


Feature Name Feature Type Elevation Latitude Longitude
Emuruepoli Cone 1328 m 1° 30' 0" N 36° 21' 0" E
Enambaba Cone 1100 m 1° 32' 0" N 36° 19' 0" E
Kapusikeju Cone 1200 m 1° 29' 0" N 36° 20' 0" E
Losetom Tuff cone 700 m 1° 34' 0" N 36° 22' 30" E
Nakot Cone 1200 m 1° 32' 0" N 36° 22' 0" E


Feature Name Feature Type Elevation Latitude Longitude
Kangirinyang Maar 400 m 1° 43' 0" N 36° 26' 0" E


Feature Name Feature Type Elevation Latitude Longitude
Nangarabat Springs Hot Spring
Suguta River Hot Springs Hot Spring

Photo Gallery

The broad Emuruangogolak shield volcano is situated at a narrow constriction in the East African Rift. The volcano is capped by a 5 x 3.5 km wide summit caldera, whose southern rim cuts across the center of the photo. The trachytic lava cone of Emuruepoli and its associated dome on the east are visible on the northern rim of the caldera. Since formation of the caldera about 38,000 years ago, trachytic and basaltic lava flows were erupted within the caldera and on the volcano's flanks; the latest eruption occurred less than a hundred years ago.

Photo by Martin Smith, 1993 (copyright British Geological Survey, NERC).

Smithsonian Sample Collections Database

There are no samples for Emuruangogolak in the Smithsonian's NMNH Department of Mineral Sciences Rock and Ore collection.

Affiliated Sites

Large Eruptions of Emuruangogolak Information about large Quaternary eruptions (VEI >= 4) is cataloged in the Large Magnitude Explosive Volcanic Eruptions (LaMEVE) database of the Volcano Global Risk Identification and Analysis Project (VOGRIPA).
WOVOdat WOVOdat is a database of volcanic unrest; instrumentally and visually recorded changes in seismicity, ground deformation, gas emission, and other parameters from their normal baselines. It is sponsored by the World Organization of Volcano Observatories (WOVO) and presently hosted at the Earth Observatory of Singapore.
EarthChem EarthChem develops and maintains databases, software, and services that support the preservation, discovery, access and analysis of geochemical data, and facilitate their integration with the broad array of other available earth science parameters. EarthChem is operated by a joint team of disciplinary scientists, data scientists, data managers and information technology developers who are part of the NSF-funded data facility Integrated Earth Data Applications (IEDA). IEDA is a collaborative effort of EarthChem and the Marine Geoscience Data System (MGDS).
MODVOLC - HIGP MODIS Thermal Alert System Using infrared satellite Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) data, scientists at the Hawai'i Institute of Geophysics and Planetology, University of Hawai'i, developed an automated system called MODVOLC to map thermal hot-spots in near real time. For each MODIS image, the algorithm automatically scans each 1 km pixel within it to check for high-temperature hot-spots. When one is found the date, time, location, and intensity are recorded. MODIS looks at every square km of the Earth every 48 hours, once during the day and once during the night, and the presence of two MODIS sensors in space allows at least four hot-spot observations every two days. Each day updated global maps are compiled to display the locations of all hot spots detected in the previous 24 hours. There is a drop-down list with volcano names which allow users to 'zoom-in' and examine the distribution of hot-spots at a variety of spatial scales.
MIROVA Middle InfraRed Observation of Volcanic Activity (MIROVA) is a near real time volcanic hot-spot detection system based on the analysis of MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) data. In particular, MIROVA uses the Middle InfraRed Radiation (MIR), measured over target volcanoes, in order to detect, locate and measure the heat radiation sourced from volcanic activity.