Chyulu Hills

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  • Country
  • Volcanic Region
  • Primary Volcano Type
  • Last Known Eruption
  • 2.68°S
  • 37.88°E

  • 2188 m
    7177 ft

  • 222130
  • Latitude
  • Longitude

  • Summit
    Elevation

  • Volcano
    Number

The Global Volcanism Program has no activity reports for Chyulu Hills.

The Global Volcanism Program has no Weekly Reports available for Chyulu Hills.

The Global Volcanism Program has no Bulletin Reports available for Chyulu Hills.

Basic Data

Volcano Number

Last Known Eruption

Elevation

Latitude
Longitude
222130

1855 CE

2188 m / 7177 ft

2.68°S
37.88°E

Volcano Types

Volcanic field

Rock Types

Major
Trachybasalt / Tephrite Basanite
Basalt / Picro-Basalt
Foidite

Tectonic Setting

Rift zone
Continental crust (> 25 km)

Population

Within 5 km
Within 10 km
Within 30 km
Within 100 km
14,889
14,889
91,280
1,784,980

Geological Summary

The 100-km-long NW-SE-trending Chyulu Hills volcanic field is located 150 km E of the Kenya Rift. It contains several hundred small cones and flows, including numerous recent cinder cones. Two of these, Shaitani and Chainu, erupted during the mid-19th century. Volcanic activity began about 1.4 million years ago with eruptions in the northern Chyulu Hills and migrated to the SE, where a large number of Holocene cones are found. Many of the cinder cones are aligned along dominantly NW-trending older faults and younger NNE-trending fissures. The silica contents of the lava flows increased with time. Early flows consisted of foidites; later Holocene lava flows are basanites and alkali basalts.

References

The following references have all been used during the compilation of data for this volcano, it is not a comprehensive bibliography.

Haug G H, Strecker M R, 1995. Volcano-tectonic evolution of the Chyulu Hills and implications for the regional stress field in Kenya. Geology, 23: 165-16.

Richard J J, Neumann van Padang M, 1957. Africa and the Red Sea. Catalog of Active Volcanoes of the World and Solfatara Fields, Rome: IAVCEI 4: 1-118.

Saggerson E P, 1963. Geology of the Simba-Kibwezi area. Geol Surv Kenya Rpt, 58: 1-70.

Spath A, Le Roex A P, Opiyo-Akech N, 2001. Plume-lithosphere interaction and the origin of continental rift-related alkaline volcanism--the Chyulu Hills volcanic province, southern Kenya. J Petr, 42: 765-787.

Eruptive History


Summary of Holocene eruption dates and Volcanic Explosivity Indices (VEI).


Start Date Stop Date Eruption Certainty VEI Evidence Activity Area or Unit
1855 ± 5 years Unknown Confirmed 2 Anthropology Shaitani and Chaimu
1470 ± 200 years Unknown Confirmed   Radiocarbon (uncorrected) Umani

This compilation of synonyms and subsidiary features may not be comprehensive. Features are organized into four major categories: Cones, Craters, Domes, and Thermal Features. Synonyms of features appear indented below the primary name. In some cases additional feature type, elevation, or location details are provided.


Cones

Feature Name Feature Type Elevation Latitude Longitude
Aseba, Ol Doinyo Cone 1110 m 2° 20' 0" S 37° 38' 0" E
Chaimu
    Cheimu
    Ngulia Hills
Cone 1615 m 2° 56' 0" S 38° 4' 0" E
Duani Cone 1134 m 2° 17' 0" S 37° 44' 0" E
Elmau Cone 1311 m 2° 29' 0" S 37° 41' 0" E
Engeloreti, Ol Doinyo Cone 1277 m 2° 24' 0" S 37° 40' 0" E
Ithundu Cone 1190 m 2° 20' 0" S 37° 42' 0" E
Kakambui Cone 2° 21' 0" S 37° 44' 0" E
Kenze Cone 1148 m 2° 26' 0" S 37° 53' 0" E
Kwadisha Cone 1192 m 2° 29' 0" S 37° 38' 0" E
Lalasho, Ol Doinyo Cone 2° 25' 0" S 37° 33' 0" E
Lambagai, Ol Doinyo Cone 2° 24' 0" S 37° 37' 0" E
Lolrupande, Ol Doinyo Cone 1209 m 2° 23' 0" S 37° 36' 0" E
Mabuani Cone 2° 22' 0" S 37° 46' 0" E
Mathaioni Cone 1190 m 2° 19' 0" S 37° 42' 0" E
Migululu Cone 1471 m 2° 23' 0" S 37° 44' 0" E
Mubonyakya Cone 1161 m 2° 22' 0" S 37° 46' 0" E
Mutonaju Cone 1423 m 2° 22' 0" S 37° 42' 0" E
Mwailo
    Makinku
Cone 1137 m 2° 15' 0" S 37° 43' 0" E
Nemashi Cone 2° 14' 0" S 37° 35' 0" E
Ngalata Cone 1090 m 2° 17' 0" S 37° 38' 0" E
Ngazani Cone 2° 18' 0" S 37° 40' 0" E
Olgoreti, Ol Doinyo Cone 2° 19' 0" S 37° 37' 0" E
Olgurtam Cone 2° 24' 0" S 37° 34' 0" E
Olmoti Cone 2° 11' 0" S 37° 39' 0" E
Olorerer Cone 1172 m 2° 20' 0" S 37° 34' 0" E
Oojini Cone 2° 16' 0" S 37° 41' 0" E
Osogot Cone 1097 m 2° 12' 0" S 37° 39' 0" E
Sambu, Ol Doinyo Cone 1341 m 2° 22' 0" S 37° 38' 0" E
Shaitani Cone 1667 m 2° 52' 0" S 37° 58' 0" E
Tindima Cone 1529 m 2° 24' 0" S 37° 44' 0" E
Umani Cone 1131 m 2° 28' 0" S 37° 54' 0" E

Photo Gallery


The dark lava flows at the right side of this Landsat image are from vents at the western end of the Chyulu Hills volcanic field. This 100-km-long, NW-SE-trending volcanic field is located 150 km east of the Kenya Rift. Two of the several hundred small cones and flows, Shaitani and Chaimu, erupted during the mid-19th century. Many of the cinder cones are aligned along dominantly NW-trending older faults and younger NNE-trending fissures.

NASA Landsat image, 1999 (courtesy of Hawaii Synergy Project, Univ. of Hawaii Institute of Geophysics & Planetology).

Smithsonian Sample Collections Database


A listing of samples from the Smithsonian collections will be available soon.

Affiliated Sites

Large Eruptions of Chyulu Hills Information about large Quaternary eruptions (VEI >= 4) is cataloged in the Large Magnitude Explosive Volcanic Eruptions (LaMEVE) database of the Volcano Global Risk Identification and Analysis Project (VOGRIPA).
WOVOdat WOVOdat is a database of volcanic unrest; instrumentally and visually recorded changes in seismicity, ground deformation, gas emission, and other parameters from their normal baselines. It is sponsored by the World Organization of Volcano Observatories (WOVO) and presently hosted at the Earth Observatory of Singapore.
EarthChem EarthChem develops and maintains databases, software, and services that support the preservation, discovery, access and analysis of geochemical data, and facilitate their integration with the broad array of other available earth science parameters. EarthChem is operated by a joint team of disciplinary scientists, data scientists, data managers and information technology developers who are part of the NSF-funded data facility Integrated Earth Data Applications (IEDA). IEDA is a collaborative effort of EarthChem and the Marine Geoscience Data System (MGDS).
MODVOLC - HIGP MODIS Thermal Alert System Using infrared satellite Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) data, scientists at the Hawai'i Institute of Geophysics and Planetology, University of Hawai'i, developed an automated system called MODVOLC to map thermal hot-spots in near real time. For each MODIS image, the algorithm automatically scans each 1 km pixel within it to check for high-temperature hot-spots. When one is found the date, time, location, and intensity are recorded. MODIS looks at every square km of the Earth every 48 hours, once during the day and once during the night, and the presence of two MODIS sensors in space allows at least four hot-spot observations every two days. Each day updated global maps are compiled to display the locations of all hot spots detected in the previous 24 hours. There is a drop-down list with volcano names which allow users to 'zoom-in' and examine the distribution of hot-spots at a variety of spatial scales.
MIROVA Middle InfraRed Observation of Volcanic Activity (MIROVA) is a near real time volcanic hot-spot detection system based on the analysis of MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) data. In particular, MIROVA uses the Middle InfraRed Radiation (MIR), measured over target volcanoes, in order to detect, locate and measure the heat radiation sourced from volcanic activity.