Rungwe

Photo of this volcano
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  • Country
  • Volcanic Region
  • Primary Volcano Type
  • Last Known Eruption
  • 9.13°S
  • 33.67°E

  • 2956 m
    9696 ft

  • 222166
  • Latitude
  • Longitude

  • Summit
    Elevation

  • Volcano
    Number

The Global Volcanism Program has no activity reports for Rungwe.

The Global Volcanism Program has no Weekly Reports available for Rungwe.

The Global Volcanism Program has no Bulletin Reports available for Rungwe.

Rungwe volcano, the largest in the Karonga basin NW of Lake Malawi (Lake Nyasa), is cut by a 4-km-wide caldera that is breached to the WSW. Hummocky terrain from a debris-avalanche deposit produced by collapse of the summit and western flank extends at least 20 km SW of the volcano. The trachytic caldera is largely filled by a series of youthful-looking uneroded and sparsely vegetated pumice cones, lava domes, and explosion craters. The latter are also found on the southern and northern flanks. A large area of basaltic cones and lava flows are found on the NW flank of the volcano, and youthful-looking lava flows extend to the SW from vents inside the caldera. Rungwe produced explosive and effusive eruptions during the Holocene; the largest explosive eruption took place about 4000 years ago and the most recent about about 1200 years ago.

Summary of Holocene eruption dates and Volcanic Explosivity Indices (VEI).

Start Date Stop Date Eruption Certainty VEI Evidence Activity Area or Unit
1250 ± 40 years Unknown Confirmed   Radiocarbon (corrected) Kizungu Tephra
0050 BCE ± 100 years Unknown Confirmed 4 Radiocarbon (corrected) Isongole Pumice
2050 BCE (?) Unknown Confirmed 5 Tephrochronology Rungwe Pumice

This compilation of synonyms and subsidiary features may not be comprehensive. Features are organized into four major categories: Cones, Craters, Domes, and Thermal Features. Synonyms of features appear indented below the primary name. In some cases additional feature type, elevation, or location details are provided.


Craters

Feature Name Feature Type Elevation Latitude Longitude
Lusiba Crater
Ndwati Crater
Sama Crater
The summit of Rungwe volcano is seen from WNW with the scarp resulting from edifice collapse in the background. At the the left-center is a cone breached by a lava flow towards the S to SW (right). Rungwe volcano is the largest in the Karonga basin NW of Lake Malawi (Lake Nyasa) and is capped by a 4-km-wide caldera that is breached to the west. The trachytic caldera is largely filled by a series of youthful-looking uneroded and sparsely vegetated pumice cones, lava domes, and explosion craters.

Photo by Karen Fontijn, 2008 (University of Gent).

The following references have all been used during the compilation of data for this volcano, it is not a comprehensive bibliography. Discussion of another volcano or eruption (sometimes far from the one that is the subject of the manuscript) may produce a citation that is not at all apparent from the title.

Ebinger C J, Deino A L, Drake R E, Tesha A L, 1989. Chronology of volcanism and rift basin propagation: Rungwe volcanic province, East Africa. J Geophys Res, 94: 15,785-15,803.

Fontijn K, Ernst G G J, Elburg M A, Williamson D, Abdallah E, Kwelwa S, Mbede E, Jacobs P, 2010. Holocene explosive eruptions in the Rungwe Volcanic Province, Tanzania . J Volc Geotherm Res, 196: 91-110.

Harkin D A, 1960. The Rungwe volcanics at the northern end of Lake Nyasa. Geol Surv Tanganyika Mem, 2: 1-172.

IAVCEI, 1973-80. Post-Miocene Volcanoes of the World. IAVCEI Data Sheets, Rome: Internatl Assoc Volc Chemistry Earth's Interior..

Volcano Types

Stratovolcano
Pyroclastic cone(s)
Lava dome

Tectonic Setting

Rift zone
Continental crust (> 25 km)

Rock Types

Major
Trachyte / Trachyandesite
Phonolite
Basalt / Picro-Basalt

Population

Within 5 km
Within 10 km
Within 30 km
Within 100 km
644
20,713
393,819
2,299,914

Affiliated Databases

Large Eruptions of Rungwe Information about large Quaternary eruptions (VEI >= 4) is cataloged in the Large Magnitude Explosive Volcanic Eruptions (LaMEVE) database of the Volcano Global Risk Identification and Analysis Project (VOGRIPA).
WOVOdat WOVOdat is a database of volcanic unrest; instrumentally and visually recorded changes in seismicity, ground deformation, gas emission, and other parameters from their normal baselines. It is sponsored by the World Organization of Volcano Observatories (WOVO) and presently hosted at the Earth Observatory of Singapore.
EarthChem EarthChem develops and maintains databases, software, and services that support the preservation, discovery, access and analysis of geochemical data, and facilitate their integration with the broad array of other available earth science parameters. EarthChem is operated by a joint team of disciplinary scientists, data scientists, data managers and information technology developers who are part of the NSF-funded data facility Integrated Earth Data Applications (IEDA). IEDA is a collaborative effort of EarthChem and the Marine Geoscience Data System (MGDS).
Smithsonian Collections Search the Smithsonian's NMNH Department of Mineral Sciences collections database. Go to the "Search Rocks and Ores" tab and use the Volcano Name drop-down to find samples.