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Rungwe volcano, the largest in the Karonga basin NW of Lake Malawi (Lake Nyasa), is cut by a 4-km-wide caldera that is breached to the WSW. Hummocky terrain from a debris-avalanche deposit produced by collapse of the summit and western flank extends at least 20 km SW of the volcano. The trachytic caldera is largely filled by a series of youthful-looking uneroded and sparsely vegetated pumice cones, lava domes, and explosion craters. The latter are also found on the southern and northern flanks. A large area of basaltic cones and lava flows are found on the NW flank of the volcano, and youthful-looking lava flows extend to the SW from vents inside the caldera. Rungwe produced explosive and effusive eruptions during the Holocene; the largest explosive eruption took place about 4000 years ago and the most recent about about 1200 years ago.
Summary of Holocene eruption dates and Volcanic Explosivity Indices (VEI).
|Start Date||Stop Date||Eruption Certainty||VEI||Evidence||Activity Area or Unit|
|1250 ± 40 years||Unknown||Confirmed||Radiocarbon (corrected)||Kizungu Tephra|
|0050 BCE ± 100 years||Unknown||Confirmed||4||Radiocarbon (corrected)||Isongole Pumice|
|2050 BCE (?)||Unknown||Confirmed||5||Tephrochronology||Rungwe Pumice|
This compilation of synonyms and subsidiary features may not be comprehensive. Features are organized into four major categories: Cones, Craters, Domes, and Thermal Features. Synonyms of features appear indented below the primary name. In some cases additional feature type, elevation, or location details are provided.
|Feature Name||Feature Type||Elevation||Latitude||Longitude|
|The summit of Rungwe volcano is seen from WNW with the scarp resulting from edifice collapse in the background. At the the left-center is a cone breached by a lava flow towards the S to SW (right). Rungwe volcano is the largest in the Karonga basin NW of Lake Malawi (Lake Nyasa) and is capped by a 4-km-wide caldera that is breached to the west. The trachytic caldera is largely filled by a series of youthful-looking uneroded and sparsely vegetated pumice cones, lava domes, and explosion craters.
Photo by Karen Fontijn, 2008 (University of Gent).
The following references have all been used during the compilation of data for this volcano, it is not a comprehensive bibliography. Discussion of another volcano or eruption (sometimes far from the one that is the subject of the manuscript) may produce a citation that is not at all apparent from the title.
Ebinger C J, Deino A L, Drake R E, Tesha A L, 1989. Chronology of volcanism and rift basin propagation: Rungwe volcanic province, East Africa. J Geophys Res, 94: 15,785-15,803.
Fontijn K, Ernst G G J, Elburg M A, Williamson D, Abdallah E, Kwelwa S, Mbede E, Jacobs P, 2010. Holocene explosive eruptions in the Rungwe Volcanic Province, Tanzania . J Volc Geotherm Res, 196: 91-110.
Harkin D A, 1960. The Rungwe volcanics at the northern end of Lake Nyasa. Geol Surv Tanganyika Mem, 2: 1-172.
IAVCEI, 1973-80. Post-Miocene Volcanoes of the World. IAVCEI Data Sheets, Rome: Internatl Assoc Volc Chemistry Earth's Interior..