Tombel Graben

Photo of this volcano
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  • Country
  • Volcanic Region
  • Primary Volcano Type
  • Last Known Eruption
  • 4.75°N
  • 9.67°E

  • 500 m
    1640 ft

  • 224011
  • Latitude
  • Longitude

  • Summit
    Elevation

  • Volcano
    Number

The Global Volcanism Program has no activity reports for Tombel Graben.

The Global Volcanism Program has no Weekly Reports available for Tombel Graben.

The Global Volcanism Program has no Bulletin Reports available for Tombel Graben.

Basic Data

Volcano Number

Last Known Eruption

Elevation

Latitude
Longitude
224011

Unknown - Evidence Credible

500 m / 1640 ft

4.75°N
9.67°E

Volcano Types

Pyroclastic cone(s)
Maar(s)

Rock Types

Major
Trachybasalt / Tephrite Basanite
Basalt / Picro-Basalt

Tectonic Setting

Intraplate
Continental crust (> 25 km)

Population

Within 5 km
Within 10 km
Within 30 km
Within 100 km
234,623
234,623
434,892
4,087,423

Geological Summary

Young cinder cones and maars dot the low-lying Tombel Graben (also referred to as the Tombel Plain) between Mount Cameroon and Mount Manengouba. Activity in the 10-20 km wide graben began with the emission of large lava flows over a basement of Precambrian metamorphic rocks and Cretaceous sandstones and concluded with explosive activity forming numerous cinder cones. The 800 sq km Tombel Graben volcanic field erupted basanitic, basaltic, and trachybasaltic rocks and contains three large lake-filled maars, including Barombi Mbo, a compound maar near the town of Kumba. Legends record an eruption of Le Djungo (also known as Mont Pelé) that destroyed a village, consistent with its youthful, unvegetated morphology.

References

The following references have all been used during the compilation of data for this volcano, it is not a comprehensive bibliography.

Fitton J G, 1987. The Cameroon line, West Africa: a comparison between oceanic and continental alkaline volcanism. In: Fitton J G and Upton B G J (eds) {Alkaline Igneous Rocks}, Geol Soc Amer Spec Pub 30: 273-291.

Fitton J G, Dunlop H M, 1985. The Cameroon line, West Africa, and its bearing on the origin of oceanic and continental alkali basalt. Earth Planet Sci Lett, 72: 23-38.

Geze B, 1953. Les volcans du Cameroun occidental. Bull Volc, 13: 63-92.

Nkouathio D G, Menard J-J, Wandji P, Bardintzeff J-M, 2002. The Tombel graben (West Cameroon): a recent monogenetic volcanic field of the Cameroon Line. J African Earth Sci, 35: 285-300.

Sato H, Aramaki S, Kusakabe M, Hirabayashi J-I, Sano Y, Nojiri Y, Tchoua F, 1990. Geochemical difference of basalts between polygenetic and monogenetic volcanoes in the central part of the Cameroon volcanic line. Geochem J, 24: 357-370.

Tchoua F M, 1971. Le volcanisme Strombolien de la plaine de Tombel (Cameroun). Annales Fac Sci, Yaounde, Cameroun, 7-8: 53-78.

The Global Volcanism Program is not aware of any Holocene eruptions from Tombel Graben. If this volcano has had large eruptions (VEI >= 4) prior to 10,000 years ago, information might be found on the Tombel Graben page in the LaMEVE (Large Magnitude Explosive Volcanic Eruptions) database, a part of the Volcano Global Risk Identification and Analysis Project (VOGRIPA).

This compilation of synonyms and subsidiary features may not be comprehensive. Features are organized into four major categories: Cones, Craters, Domes, and Thermal Features. Synonyms of features appear indented below the primary name. In some cases additional feature type, elevation, or location details are provided.


Synonyms

Tombel Plain

Cones

Feature Name Feature Type Elevation Latitude Longitude
Djungo, Le
    Pele, Mont
Cone

Craters

Feature Name Feature Type Elevation Latitude Longitude
Barombe Koto, Lake Maar
Barombe Mbo, Lake Maar 4° 48' 0" N 9° 30' 0" E

Photo Gallery


Three lake-filled maars dot the Tombel Graben between Mount Cameroon (lower left) and lava flows from Manengouba volcano (top). The Mungo River runs from north to south across the right side of this Landsat image. The largest maar, Barombi Mbo, lies just west of the brown-colored area of the town of Kumba, and Barombi Koto is at the lower left. A large number of cinder cones, including the young cone of Le Djungo (Mont Pelé) dot the 10-20 km wide graben.

NASA Landsat image, 1999 (courtesy of Hawaii Synergy Project, Univ. of Hawaii Institute of Geophysics & Planetology).

Smithsonian Sample Collections Database


A listing of samples from the Smithsonian collections will be available soon.

Affiliated Sites

Large Eruptions of Tombel Graben Information about large Quaternary eruptions (VEI >= 4) is cataloged in the Large Magnitude Explosive Volcanic Eruptions (LaMEVE) database of the Volcano Global Risk Identification and Analysis Project (VOGRIPA).
WOVOdat WOVOdat is a database of volcanic unrest; instrumentally and visually recorded changes in seismicity, ground deformation, gas emission, and other parameters from their normal baselines. It is sponsored by the World Organization of Volcano Observatories (WOVO) and presently hosted at the Earth Observatory of Singapore.
EarthChem EarthChem develops and maintains databases, software, and services that support the preservation, discovery, access and analysis of geochemical data, and facilitate their integration with the broad array of other available earth science parameters. EarthChem is operated by a joint team of disciplinary scientists, data scientists, data managers and information technology developers who are part of the NSF-funded data facility Integrated Earth Data Applications (IEDA). IEDA is a collaborative effort of EarthChem and the Marine Geoscience Data System (MGDS).
MODVOLC - HIGP MODIS Thermal Alert System Using infrared satellite Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) data, scientists at the Hawai'i Institute of Geophysics and Planetology, University of Hawai'i, developed an automated system called MODVOLC to map thermal hot-spots in near real time. For each MODIS image, the algorithm automatically scans each 1 km pixel within it to check for high-temperature hot-spots. When one is found the date, time, location, and intensity are recorded. MODIS looks at every square km of the Earth every 48 hours, once during the day and once during the night, and the presence of two MODIS sensors in space allows at least four hot-spot observations every two days. Each day updated global maps are compiled to display the locations of all hot spots detected in the previous 24 hours. There is a drop-down list with volcano names which allow users to 'zoom-in' and examine the distribution of hot-spots at a variety of spatial scales.
MIROVA Middle InfraRed Observation of Volcanic Activity (MIROVA) is a near real time volcanic hot-spot detection system based on the analysis of MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) data. In particular, MIROVA uses the Middle InfraRed Radiation (MIR), measured over target volcanoes, in order to detect, locate and measure the heat radiation sourced from volcanic activity.