Jebel Marra

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  • Country
  • Volcanic Region
  • Primary Volcano Type
  • Last Known Eruption
  • 12.95°N
  • 24.27°E

  • 3042 m
    9978 ft

  • 225030
  • Latitude
  • Longitude

  • Summit

  • Volcano

The Global Volcanism Program has no activity reports for Jebel Marra.

The Global Volcanism Program has no Weekly Reports available for Jebel Marra.

The Global Volcanism Program has no Bulletin Reports available for Jebel Marra.

Basic Data

Volcano Number

Last Known Eruption



2000 BCE

3042 m / 9978 ft


Volcano Types

Volcanic field

Rock Types

Basalt / Picro-Basalt
Trachyte / Trachyandesite
Trachybasalt / Tephrite Basanite
Trachyandesite / Basaltic trachy-andesite

Tectonic Setting

Continental crust (> 25 km)


Within 5 km
Within 10 km
Within 30 km
Within 100 km

Geological Summary

The most prominent feature of the vast Jebel Marra volcanic field, located in the Darfur province of western Sudan, is the youthful Deriba caldera. The 5-km-wide, steep-walled caldera, located at the southern end of the field, was formed about 3500 years ago at the time of the eruption of voluminous airfall pumice and pyroclastic flows that traveled more than 30 km from the volcano. The Jebel Marra volcanic field covers a broad area of the Marra Mountains and contains early basaltic lava flows overlain by thick sequences of pyroclastic-flow deposits. The northern part of the field displays trachytic lava plugs and spines forming residual inselbergs and young basaltic scoria cones and lava flows. Ash eruptions at Deriba caldera may have continued into early historical time (Burton and Wickers, 1966), and fumarolic activity has been observed on the flanks of a small pyroclastic cone within the caldera.


The following references have all been used during the compilation of data for this volcano, it is not a comprehensive bibliography.

Burton A N, Wickens G E, 1966. Jebel Marra volcano, Sudan. Nature, 210: 1146-1147.

Davidson J P, Wilson I R, 1989. Evolution of an alkali basalt-trachyte suite from Jebel Marra volcano, Sudan, through assimilation and fractional crystallization. Earth Planet Sci Lett, 95: 141-160.

Francis P W, Thorpe R S, Ahmed F, 1973. Setting and significance of Tertiary-Recent volcanism in the Darfur Province of western Sudan. Nature, 243: 30-32.

Katsui Y (ed), 1971. List of the World Active Volcanoes. Volc Soc Japan draft ms, (limited circulation), 160 p.

Vail J R, 1972. Jebel Marra, a dormant volcano in Darfur Province, western Sudan. Bull Volc, 36: 251-268.

Eruptive History

Summary of Holocene eruption dates and Volcanic Explosivity Indices (VEI).

Start Date Stop Date Eruption Certainty VEI Evidence Activity Area or Unit
2000 BCE (?) Unknown Confirmed 4 Radiocarbon (corrected) Deriba caldera

This compilation of synonyms and subsidiary features may not be comprehensive. Features are organized into four major categories: Cones, Craters, Domes, and Thermal Features. Synonyms of features appear indented below the primary name. In some cases additional feature type, elevation, or location details are provided.


Gimbala, Jebel | Marra Mountains


Feature Name Feature Type Elevation Latitude Longitude
Gurgei Volcanic field
Idwa, Jebel Cone


Feature Name Feature Type Elevation Latitude Longitude
Deriba Caldera 3042 m

Photo Gallery

The small circular area just right of the center of this Space Shuttle image is Deriba caldera, the most prominent feature of the vast Jebel Marra volcanic field in western Sudan. The 5-km-wide, steep-walled caldera was formed about 3500 years ago at the time of the eruption of voluminous airfall pumice and pyroclastic flows that traveled more than 30 km from the volcano. Ash eruptions may have continued into early historical time, and fumarolic activity continues on the flanks of the caldera.

NASA Space Shuttle image STS32-94-24, 1990 (
A lake partially fills a younger cone within the Deriba caldera of Jebel Marra volcano in this view from the north. The 5-km-wide, steep-walled Deriba caldera, whose wall appears in the background, was formed about 3500 years ago at the time of the eruption of voluminous airfall pumice and pyroclastic flows that traveled more than 30 km from the volcano. Post-caldera ash eruptions may have continued into historical time.

Photo by J. Williams, 1986 (

Smithsonian Sample Collections Database

There are no samples for Jebel Marra in the Smithsonian's NMNH Department of Mineral Sciences Rock and Ore collection.

Affiliated Sites

Large Eruptions of Jebel Marra Information about large Quaternary eruptions (VEI >= 4) is cataloged in the Large Magnitude Explosive Volcanic Eruptions (LaMEVE) database of the Volcano Global Risk Identification and Analysis Project (VOGRIPA).
WOVOdat WOVOdat is a database of volcanic unrest; instrumentally and visually recorded changes in seismicity, ground deformation, gas emission, and other parameters from their normal baselines. It is sponsored by the World Organization of Volcano Observatories (WOVO) and presently hosted at the Earth Observatory of Singapore.
EarthChem EarthChem develops and maintains databases, software, and services that support the preservation, discovery, access and analysis of geochemical data, and facilitate their integration with the broad array of other available earth science parameters. EarthChem is operated by a joint team of disciplinary scientists, data scientists, data managers and information technology developers who are part of the NSF-funded data facility Integrated Earth Data Applications (IEDA). IEDA is a collaborative effort of EarthChem and the Marine Geoscience Data System (MGDS).
MODVOLC - HIGP MODIS Thermal Alert System Using infrared satellite Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) data, scientists at the Hawai'i Institute of Geophysics and Planetology, University of Hawai'i, developed an automated system called MODVOLC to map thermal hot-spots in near real time. For each MODIS image, the algorithm automatically scans each 1 km pixel within it to check for high-temperature hot-spots. When one is found the date, time, location, and intensity are recorded. MODIS looks at every square km of the Earth every 48 hours, once during the day and once during the night, and the presence of two MODIS sensors in space allows at least four hot-spot observations every two days. Each day updated global maps are compiled to display the locations of all hot spots detected in the previous 24 hours. There is a drop-down list with volcano names which allow users to 'zoom-in' and examine the distribution of hot-spots at a variety of spatial scales.
MIROVA Middle InfraRed Observation of Volcanic Activity (MIROVA) is a near real time volcanic hot-spot detection system based on the analysis of MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) data. In particular, MIROVA uses the Middle InfraRed Radiation (MIR), measured over target volcanoes, in order to detect, locate and measure the heat radiation sourced from volcanic activity.