Harrat Ithnayn

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  • Country
  • Volcanic Region
  • Primary Volcano Type
  • Last Known Eruption
  • 26.58°N
  • 40.2°E

  • 1625 m
    5330 ft

  • 231050
  • Latitude
  • Longitude

  • Summit

  • Volcano

The Global Volcanism Program has no activity reports for Harrat Ithnayn.

The Global Volcanism Program has no Weekly Reports available for Harrat Ithnayn.

The Global Volcanism Program has no Bulletin Reports available for Harrat Ithnayn.

Basic Data

Volcano Number

Last Known Eruption



Unknown - Evidence Credible

1625 m / 5330 ft


Volcano Types

Volcanic field

Rock Types

Basalt / Picro-Basalt
Trachybasalt / Tephrite Basanite

Tectonic Setting

Continental crust (> 25 km)


Within 5 km
Within 10 km
Within 30 km
Within 100 km

Geological Summary

The 4000 sq km Harrat Ithnayn volcanic field contains scattered shield volcanoes and scoria cones. It merges with the much larger Harrat Khaybar volcanic field to the south. The field overlies Cambrian sandstones and Precambrian basement rocks. Vents form a general N-S pattern, but are more scattered than those of Harrat Khaybar. Harrat Ithnayn rocks are of basaltic and basanitic composition and lack the silicic components present in neighboring Harrat Khaybar. The youngest lava flows from Harrat Ithnayn are less than 4500 years old. An uncertain report of an historical eruption in 1800 CE is considered unlikely by Camp et al. (1991), who mapped no eruptive products younger than about 1500 years from Harrat Ithnayn.


The following references have all been used during the compilation of data for this volcano, it is not a comprehensive bibliography.

Brown G F, Schmidt D L, Huffman A C Jr, 1984. Geology of the Arabian Peninsula western shield area. U S Geol Surv, Open-File Rpt, 84:203: 1-217.

Camp V E, Hooper P R, Roobol M J, White D L, 1987. The Madinah eruption, Saudi Arabia: magma mixing and simultaneous extrusion of the three basaltic chemical types. Bull Volc, 49: 489-508.

Camp V E, Roobol M J, Hooper P R, 1991. The Arabia continental alkali basalt province: Part II. Evolution of Harrats Khaybar, Ithnayn, and Kura, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. Geol Soc Amer Bull, 103: 363-391.

Neumann van Padang M, 1963. Arabia and the Indian Ocean. Catalog of Active Volcanoes of the World and Solfatara Fields, Rome: IAVCEI, 16: 1-64.

Roobol M J, Camp V E, 1991. Geologic map of the Cenozoic lava fields of Harrats Khaubar, Ithnayn, and Kura, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. Saudi Arabia Min Petrol Mineral Resour, 1:250,000 geol map.

The Global Volcanism Program is not aware of any Holocene eruptions from Harrat Ithnayn. If this volcano has had large eruptions (VEI >= 4) prior to 10,000 years ago, information might be found on the Harrat Ithnayn page in the LaMEVE (Large Magnitude Explosive Volcanic Eruptions) database, a part of the Volcano Global Risk Identification and Analysis Project (VOGRIPA).

This compilation of synonyms and subsidiary features may not be comprehensive. Features are organized into four major categories: Cones, Craters, Domes, and Thermal Features. Synonyms of features appear indented below the primary name. In some cases additional feature type, elevation, or location details are provided.


Hilla Ethnan | Ithnain | Ethnein, Hala-'l- | Hutaym, Harrat


Feature Name Feature Type Elevation Latitude Longitude
Hazam Khadra', Jabal Cone 26° 10' 0" N 40° 7' 0" E


Feature Name Feature Type Elevation Latitude Longitude
Hibran, Jabal Crater

Photo Gallery

The 4000 sq km Harrat Ithnayn volcanic field appears in the center of this Space Shuttle image with north to the upper right. Harrat Ithnayn contains scattered shield volcanoes and scoria cones that have produced extensive lava flows, some of which are less than 4500 years old. Harrat Ithnayn merges with the larger Harrat Khaybar volcanic field to its south, the dark partially cloud-covered area at the lower left.

NASA Space Shuttle image STS-61A-483-20 (http://eol.jsc.nasa.gov/).

Smithsonian Sample Collections Database

There are no samples for Harrat Ithnayn in the Smithsonian's NMNH Department of Mineral Sciences Rock and Ore collection.

Affiliated Sites

Large Eruptions of Harrat Ithnayn Information about large Quaternary eruptions (VEI >= 4) is cataloged in the Large Magnitude Explosive Volcanic Eruptions (LaMEVE) database of the Volcano Global Risk Identification and Analysis Project (VOGRIPA).
WOVOdat WOVOdat is a database of volcanic unrest; instrumentally and visually recorded changes in seismicity, ground deformation, gas emission, and other parameters from their normal baselines. It is sponsored by the World Organization of Volcano Observatories (WOVO) and presently hosted at the Earth Observatory of Singapore.
EarthChem EarthChem develops and maintains databases, software, and services that support the preservation, discovery, access and analysis of geochemical data, and facilitate their integration with the broad array of other available earth science parameters. EarthChem is operated by a joint team of disciplinary scientists, data scientists, data managers and information technology developers who are part of the NSF-funded data facility Integrated Earth Data Applications (IEDA). IEDA is a collaborative effort of EarthChem and the Marine Geoscience Data System (MGDS).
MODVOLC - HIGP MODIS Thermal Alert System Using infrared satellite Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) data, scientists at the Hawai'i Institute of Geophysics and Planetology, University of Hawai'i, developed an automated system called MODVOLC to map thermal hot-spots in near real time. For each MODIS image, the algorithm automatically scans each 1 km pixel within it to check for high-temperature hot-spots. When one is found the date, time, location, and intensity are recorded. MODIS looks at every square km of the Earth every 48 hours, once during the day and once during the night, and the presence of two MODIS sensors in space allows at least four hot-spot observations every two days. Each day updated global maps are compiled to display the locations of all hot spots detected in the previous 24 hours. There is a drop-down list with volcano names which allow users to 'zoom-in' and examine the distribution of hot-spots at a variety of spatial scales.
MIROVA Middle InfraRed Observation of Volcanic Activity (MIROVA) is a near real time volcanic hot-spot detection system based on the analysis of MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) data. In particular, MIROVA uses the Middle InfraRed Radiation (MIR), measured over target volcanoes, in order to detect, locate and measure the heat radiation sourced from volcanic activity.