Harrat Khaybar

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  • Country
  • Volcanic Region
  • Primary Volcano Type
  • Last Known Eruption
  • 25°N
  • 39.92°E

  • 2093 m
    6865 ft

  • 231060
  • Latitude
  • Longitude

  • Summit

  • Volcano

The Global Volcanism Program has no activity reports for Harrat Khaybar.

The Global Volcanism Program has no Weekly Reports available for Harrat Khaybar.

The Global Volcanism Program has no Bulletin Reports available for Harrat Khaybar.

Basic Data

Volcano Number

Last Known Eruption



650 CE

2093 m / 6865 ft


Volcano Types

Volcanic field

Rock Types

Basalt / Picro-Basalt
Trachybasalt / Tephrite Basanite
Trachyandesite / Basaltic trachy-andesite
Trachyte / Trachyandesite

Tectonic Setting

Continental crust (> 25 km)


Within 5 km
Within 10 km
Within 30 km
Within 100 km

Geological Summary

Harrat Khaybar, one of Saudi Arabia's largest volcanic fields, covers an area of more than 14,000 sq km north of Madinah (Medina). A spectacular 100-km-long N-S linear vent system contains felsic lava domes, tuff rings, the Jabal Qidr stratovolcano, as well as numerous small basaltic cones. At least seven post-neolithic (less than 4500 years old) and eight "historical" (less than 1500 years old) lava flows are present. In the latter category is the prominent 55-km-long Habir lava flow as well as Jabal Qidr stratovolcano, the only stratovolcano in the Harrats of western Saudi Arabia. An eruption was reported at Harrat Khaybar in early Mohammedan times during the 7th century CE. Lavas from Harrat Khaybar overlap older lavas of Harrat Kura to the west and merge with lavas from Harrat Ithnayn to the north.


The following references have all been used during the compilation of data for this volcano, it is not a comprehensive bibliography.

Baker P E, Brosset R, Gass I G, Neary C R, 1973. Jebel al Abyad: a recent alkalic volcanic complex in western Saudi Arabia. Lithos, 6: 291-314.

Brown G F, Schmidt D L, Huffman A C Jr, 1984. Geology of the Arabian Peninsula western shield area. U S Geol Surv, Open-File Rpt, 84:203: 1-217.

Camp V E, Roobol M J, Hooper P R, 1991. The Arabia continental alkali basalt province: Part II. Evolution of Harrats Khaybar, Ithnayn, and Kura, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. Geol Soc Amer Bull, 103: 363-391.

Neumann van Padang M, 1963. Arabia and the Indian Ocean. Catalog of Active Volcanoes of the World and Solfatara Fields, Rome: IAVCEI, 16: 1-64.

Roobol M J, Camp V E, 1991. Geologic map of the Cenozoic lava fields of Harrats Khaubar, Ithnayn, and Kura, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. Saudi Arabia Min Petrol Mineral Resour, 1:250,000 geol map.

Eruptive History

Summary of Holocene eruption dates and Volcanic Explosivity Indices (VEI).

Start Date Stop Date Eruption Certainty VEI Evidence Activity Area or Unit
0650 ± 50 years Unknown Confirmed 2 Historical Observations Harrat Lali

This compilation of synonyms and subsidiary features may not be comprehensive. Features are organized into four major categories: Cones, Craters, Domes, and Thermal Features. Synonyms of features appear indented below the primary name. In some cases additional feature type, elevation, or location details are provided.


Khaibar, Harrat el- | Khaiber, Harrat el-


Feature Name Feature Type Elevation Latitude Longitude
Bayda, Jabal Tuff cone 1913 m 25° 40' 0" N 39° 56' 0" E
Esh-Shamit, Djebel Cone 25° 10' 0" N 39° 15' 0" E
Qidr, Jabal Stratovolcano 2022 m 25° 43' 0" N 39° 57' 0" E


Feature Name Feature Type Elevation Latitude Longitude
Abyad, Jabal Dome 2093 m 25° 40' 0" N 39° 58' 0" E
Am'am, Jabal Dome 1120 m 25° 18' 0" N 39° 33' 0" E
Ibayl, Jabal Dome 1901 m 25° 40' 0" N 39° 59' 0" E

Photo Gallery

The 4000 sq km Harrat Ithnayn volcanic field appears in the center of this Space Shuttle image with north to the upper right. Harrat Ithnayn contains scattered shield volcanoes and scoria cones that have produced extensive lava flows, some of which are less than 4500 years old. Harrat Ithnayn merges with the larger Harrat Khaybar volcanic field to its south, the dark partially cloud-covered area at the lower left.

NASA Space Shuttle image STS-61A-483-20 (http://eol.jsc.nasa.gov/).
Harrat Khaybar, one of Saudi Arabia's largest volcanic fields, covers an area of more than 14,000 sq km north of Madinah (Medina). This Space Shuttle image shows the central vent area of the volcanic field. Light-colored areas at the center of the image show felsic lava domes and tuff rings; above this area is the Jabal Qidr stratovolcano. The lava flows extending westward from the central vent area are young prehistorical and historical in age. An eruption was reported in early Mohammedan times during the 7th century AD.

NASA Space Shuttle image STS38-74-6, 1990 (http://eol.jsc.nasa.gov/).
Light-colored lapilli deposits of the Jabal Bayda ("White Mountain") tuff cone have been mistaken for a snow-capped peak. A small lava dome was constructed within the crater. Jabal Bayda and the Jabal Abyad lava dome (upper left) are part of the 14,000 sq km Harrat Khaybar volcanic field, located north of the city of Madinah (Medina). A spectacular 100-km-long N-S linear vent system in Harrat Khaybar contains felsic lava domes, tuff rings, the Jabal Qidr stratovolcano, as well as numerous small basaltic cones.

Copyrighted photo by Michael Fenton, USGS (courtesy Earth Science World Image Bank http://www.earthscienceworld.org/images)

Smithsonian Sample Collections Database

There are no samples for Harrat Khaybar in the Smithsonian's NMNH Department of Mineral Sciences Rock and Ore collection.

Affiliated Sites

Large Eruptions of Harrat Khaybar Information about large Quaternary eruptions (VEI >= 4) is cataloged in the Large Magnitude Explosive Volcanic Eruptions (LaMEVE) database of the Volcano Global Risk Identification and Analysis Project (VOGRIPA).
WOVOdat WOVOdat is a database of volcanic unrest; instrumentally and visually recorded changes in seismicity, ground deformation, gas emission, and other parameters from their normal baselines. It is sponsored by the World Organization of Volcano Observatories (WOVO) and presently hosted at the Earth Observatory of Singapore.
EarthChem EarthChem develops and maintains databases, software, and services that support the preservation, discovery, access and analysis of geochemical data, and facilitate their integration with the broad array of other available earth science parameters. EarthChem is operated by a joint team of disciplinary scientists, data scientists, data managers and information technology developers who are part of the NSF-funded data facility Integrated Earth Data Applications (IEDA). IEDA is a collaborative effort of EarthChem and the Marine Geoscience Data System (MGDS).
MODVOLC - HIGP MODIS Thermal Alert System Using infrared satellite Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) data, scientists at the Hawai'i Institute of Geophysics and Planetology, University of Hawai'i, developed an automated system called MODVOLC to map thermal hot-spots in near real time. For each MODIS image, the algorithm automatically scans each 1 km pixel within it to check for high-temperature hot-spots. When one is found the date, time, location, and intensity are recorded. MODIS looks at every square km of the Earth every 48 hours, once during the day and once during the night, and the presence of two MODIS sensors in space allows at least four hot-spot observations every two days. Each day updated global maps are compiled to display the locations of all hot spots detected in the previous 24 hours. There is a drop-down list with volcano names which allow users to 'zoom-in' and examine the distribution of hot-spots at a variety of spatial scales.
MIROVA Middle InfraRed Observation of Volcanic Activity (MIROVA) is a near real time volcanic hot-spot detection system based on the analysis of MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) data. In particular, MIROVA uses the Middle InfraRed Radiation (MIR), measured over target volcanoes, in order to detect, locate and measure the heat radiation sourced from volcanic activity.