Harrat Rahat

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  • Country
  • Volcanic Region
  • Primary Volcano Type
  • Last Known Eruption
  • 23.08°N
  • 39.78°E

  • 1744 m
    5720 ft

  • 231070
  • Latitude
  • Longitude

  • Summit
    Elevation

  • Volcano
    Number

The Global Volcanism Program has no activity reports for Harrat Rahat.

The Global Volcanism Program has no Weekly Reports available for Harrat Rahat.

The Global Volcanism Program has no Bulletin Reports available for Harrat Rahat.

Saudi Arabia's largest lava field, 20,000 sq km Harrat Rahat extends for 300 km south of the holy city of Al Madinah (Medina). Four coalescing lava fields erupted from offset NNW-trending vent systems comprise Harrat Rahat, which has an average width of 60 km. Lava flows extend as far as 100 km west of the axis of the field. Basaltic scoria cones dominate Harrat Rahat, but the volcanic field has also produced more silicic trachy-basaltic to trachytic rocks. Small shield volcanoes and pelean-type lava domes with associated pyroclastic-flow and -surge deposits are also present. Activity has migrated to the north, resulting in eruptions in historical time near Madinah. The best-known eruption took place in 1256 CE, when a 0.5 cu km lava flow erupted from six aligned scoria cones and traveled 23 km to within 4 km of Madinah.

Summary of Holocene eruption dates and Volcanic Explosivity Indices (VEI).

Start Date Stop Date Eruption Certainty VEI Evidence Activity Area or Unit
[ 1292 ] [ Unknown ] Uncertain     Near Madinah
1256 Jun 5 1256 Jul 27 (?) Confirmed 3 Historical Observations Fissure 20 km SE of Madinah
0641 Unknown Confirmed 2 Historical Observations West of Madinah

This compilation of synonyms and subsidiary features may not be comprehensive. Features are organized into four major categories: Cones, Craters, Domes, and Thermal Features. Synonyms of features appear indented below the primary name. In some cases additional feature type, elevation, or location details are provided.


Synonyms

Raha, Harrat er-

Cones

Feature Name Feature Type Elevation Latitude Longitude
Bani Abdullah, Harrat Volcanic field 23° 30' 0" N 40° 5' 0" E
Hurus, Jabal al Cone 24° 16' 0" N 39° 53' 0" E
Ma'tan, Jabal Cone 24° 19' 0" N 39° 50' 0" E
Rashid, Harrat
    Medina, Harrat el-
    Madinah, Harrat
Volcanic field 24° 15' 0" N 39° 45' 0" E
Turrah, Harrat Volcanic field 23° 0' 0" N 40° 10' 0" E

Domes

Feature Name Feature Type Elevation Latitude Longitude
Diba' Al Hurus, Jibal Dome 24° 14' 0" N 39° 51' 0" E
Umm Ruqubah, Jabal Dome 24° 5' 0" N 39° 57' 0" E
The northern part of Saudi Arabia's largest lava field, 20,000 sq km Harrat Rahat, is seen in this Space Shuttle image (with north to the upper left). Harrat Rahat extends for 300 km south of the holy city of Madinah (Medina), the light-colored area at the top-center. Although basaltic scoria cones dominate Harrat Rahat, small shield volcanoes and pelean-type lava domes are also present. The best-known eruption took place in 1256 AD, when the large dark-colored flow seen extending to the upper right traveled 23 km to within 4 km of Madinah.

NASA Space Shuttle image ISS001-344-27, 2001 (http://eol.jsc.nasa.gov/).

The following references have all been used during the compilation of data for this volcano, it is not a comprehensive bibliography. Discussion of another volcano or eruption (sometimes far from the one that is the subject of the manuscript) may produce a citation that is not at all apparent from the title.

Brown G F, Schmidt D L, Huffman A C Jr, 1984. Geology of the Arabian Peninsula western shield area. U S Geol Surv, Open-File Rpt, 84:203: 1-217.

Camp V E, Hooper P R, Roobol M J, White D L, 1987. The Madinah eruption, Saudi Arabia: magma mixing and simultaneous extrusion of the three basaltic chemical types. Bull Volc, 49: 489-508.

Camp V E, Roobol M J, 1989. The Arabian continental alkali basalt province: Part I. Evolution of Harrat Rahat, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. Geol Soc Amer Bull, 101: 71-95.

Camp V E, Roobol M J, 1991. Geologic map of the Cenozoic lava field of Harrat Rahat, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. Saudi Arabia Directorate Gen Min Res, Map GM-123, 1:250,000 geol map and text.

Katsui Y (ed), 1971. List of the World Active Volcanoes. Volc Soc Japan draft ms, (limited circulation), 160 p.

Neumann van Padang M, 1963. Arabia and the Indian Ocean. Catalog of Active Volcanoes of the World and Solfatara Fields, Rome: IAVCEI, 16: 1-64.

Volcano Types

Volcanic field

Tectonic Setting

Intraplate
Continental crust (> 25 km)

Rock Types

Major
Basalt / Picro-Basalt
Trachybasalt / Tephrite Basanite
Trachyandesite / Basaltic trachy-andesite
Minor
Trachyte / Trachyandesite

Population

Within 5 km
Within 10 km
Within 30 km
Within 100 km
1,010,115
1,010,115
1,010,115
138,380

Affiliated Databases

Large Eruptions of Harrat Rahat Information about large Quaternary eruptions (VEI >= 4) is cataloged in the Large Magnitude Explosive Volcanic Eruptions (LaMEVE) database of the Volcano Global Risk Identification and Analysis Project (VOGRIPA).
WOVOdat WOVOdat is a database of volcanic unrest; instrumentally and visually recorded changes in seismicity, ground deformation, gas emission, and other parameters from their normal baselines. It is sponsored by the World Organization of Volcano Observatories (WOVO) and presently hosted at the Earth Observatory of Singapore.
EarthChem EarthChem develops and maintains databases, software, and services that support the preservation, discovery, access and analysis of geochemical data, and facilitate their integration with the broad array of other available earth science parameters. EarthChem is operated by a joint team of disciplinary scientists, data scientists, data managers and information technology developers who are part of the NSF-funded data facility Integrated Earth Data Applications (IEDA). IEDA is a collaborative effort of EarthChem and the Marine Geoscience Data System (MGDS).
Smithsonian Collections Search the Smithsonian's NMNH Department of Mineral Sciences collections database. Go to the "Search Rocks and Ores" tab and use the Volcano Name drop-down to find samples.