Harrat al Birk

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  • Country
  • Volcanic Region
  • Primary Volcano Type
  • Last Known Eruption
  • 18.37°N
  • 41.63°E

  • 381 m
    1250 ft

  • 231072
  • Latitude
  • Longitude

  • Summit
    Elevation

  • Volcano
    Number

The Global Volcanism Program has no activity reports for Harrat al Birk.

The Global Volcanism Program has no Weekly Reports available for Harrat al Birk.

The Global Volcanism Program has no Bulletin Reports available for Harrat al Birk.

Basic Data

Volcano Number

Last Known Eruption

Elevation

Latitude
Longitude
231072

Unknown - Evidence Credible

381 m / 1250 ft

18.37°N
41.63°E

Volcano Types

Volcanic field

Rock Types

Major
Basalt / Picro-Basalt
Trachybasalt / Tephrite Basanite

Tectonic Setting

Intraplate
Continental crust (> 25 km)

Population

Within 5 km
Within 10 km
Within 30 km
Within 100 km
37,855
37,855
37,855
596,401

Geological Summary

The Harrat al Birk volcanic field, also known as Harrat Hayil or Hubhub al Sheikh, is the only Saudi Arabian volcanic field that lies directly along the Red Sea coast. It covers an 1800 sq km area west of the town of Abha and separates the Tihamat ash Sham and Tihamat 'Asir coastal plains. Volcanic activity dates back to the Miocene and concluded with the formation of Holocene cinder cones (Brown et al., 1984). The Quaternary Harrat al Birk lava flows are of basaltic to trachybasaltic composition and contain ultramafic inclusions. Cinder cones are scattered throughout the volcanic field, and a few outlying cones lie east of the main lava field. Isolated patches of freshly eroded ash surround a vent at Jabal Ba'a, east of the main field, suggesting an eruption during the last century.

References

The following references have all been used during the compilation of data for this volcano, it is not a comprehensive bibliography.

Brown G F, Schmidt D L, Huffman A C Jr, 1984. Geology of the Arabian Peninsula western shield area. U S Geol Surv, Open-File Rpt, 84:203: 1-217.

Camp V E, Roobol M J, Hooper P R, 1991. The Arabia continental alkali basalt province: Part II. Evolution of Harrats Khaybar, Ithnayn, and Kura, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. Geol Soc Amer Bull, 103: 363-391.

IAVCEI, 1973-80. Post-Miocene Volcanoes of the World. IAVCEI Data Sheets, Rome: Internatl Assoc Volc Chemistry Earth's Interior..

Neumann van Padang M, 1963. Arabia and the Indian Ocean. Catalog of Active Volcanoes of the World and Solfatara Fields, Rome: IAVCEI, 16: 1-64.

The Global Volcanism Program is not aware of any Holocene eruptions from Harrat al Birk. If this volcano has had large eruptions (VEI >= 4) prior to 10,000 years ago, information might be found on the Harrat al Birk page in the LaMEVE (Large Magnitude Explosive Volcanic Eruptions) database, a part of the Volcano Global Risk Identification and Analysis Project (VOGRIPA).

This compilation of synonyms and subsidiary features may not be comprehensive. Features are organized into four major categories: Cones, Craters, Domes, and Thermal Features. Synonyms of features appear indented below the primary name. In some cases additional feature type, elevation, or location details are provided.


Synonyms

Beni Hilal, Harra | Hayil, Harrat | Hubhub al Sheikh

Cones

Feature Name Feature Type Elevation Latitude Longitude
Ba'a, Jabal
    Ba, Jabal
Cone 18° 34' 0" N 41° 48' 0" E
Hayil, Jibal Cone 381 m
Haylah, Jabal al Cone 18° 29' 0" N 41° 47' 0" E
Qurayn, Jabal Cone 18° 4' 0" N 41° 44' 0" E
Tusi al Yamani, Jabal at Cone 18° 18' 0" N 41° 38' 0" E
Tusi ash Shami, Jabal at Cone 18° 22' 0" N 41° 34' 0" E

Photo Gallery


The Harrat al Birk volcanic field forms the dark-colored area between the Red Sea coast and the center of this NASA Space Shuttle image (with north to the upper right). This 1800 sq km Miocene and Quaternary volcanic field separates the Tihamat ash Sham and Tihamat 'Asir coastal plains. Cinder cones are scattered throughout the basaltic volcanic field, and a few outlying cones lie east of the main lava field.

NASA Space Shuttle image STS055-151-184, 1993 (http://eol.jsc.nasa.gov/).
The Harrat al Birk volcanic field extends diagonally across the center of this NASA Landsat image along the Red Sea coast. Dark-colored areas are lava fields of this 1800 sq km Miocene and Quaternary volcanic field, and yellowish areas mark pyroclastic cones and deposits. Cinder cones are scattered throughout the basaltic volcanic field, and a few outlying cones lie east of the main lava field.

NASA Landsat image, USGS, 2003.

Smithsonian Sample Collections Database


A listing of samples from the Smithsonian collections will be available soon.

Affiliated Sites

Large Eruptions of Harrat al Birk Information about large Quaternary eruptions (VEI >= 4) is cataloged in the Large Magnitude Explosive Volcanic Eruptions (LaMEVE) database of the Volcano Global Risk Identification and Analysis Project (VOGRIPA).
WOVOdat WOVOdat is a database of volcanic unrest; instrumentally and visually recorded changes in seismicity, ground deformation, gas emission, and other parameters from their normal baselines. It is sponsored by the World Organization of Volcano Observatories (WOVO) and presently hosted at the Earth Observatory of Singapore.
EarthChem EarthChem develops and maintains databases, software, and services that support the preservation, discovery, access and analysis of geochemical data, and facilitate their integration with the broad array of other available earth science parameters. EarthChem is operated by a joint team of disciplinary scientists, data scientists, data managers and information technology developers who are part of the NSF-funded data facility Integrated Earth Data Applications (IEDA). IEDA is a collaborative effort of EarthChem and the Marine Geoscience Data System (MGDS).
MODVOLC - HIGP MODIS Thermal Alert System Using infrared satellite Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) data, scientists at the Hawai'i Institute of Geophysics and Planetology, University of Hawai'i, developed an automated system called MODVOLC to map thermal hot-spots in near real time. For each MODIS image, the algorithm automatically scans each 1 km pixel within it to check for high-temperature hot-spots. When one is found the date, time, location, and intensity are recorded. MODIS looks at every square km of the Earth every 48 hours, once during the day and once during the night, and the presence of two MODIS sensors in space allows at least four hot-spot observations every two days. Each day updated global maps are compiled to display the locations of all hot spots detected in the previous 24 hours. There is a drop-down list with volcano names which allow users to 'zoom-in' and examine the distribution of hot-spots at a variety of spatial scales.
MIROVA Middle InfraRed Observation of Volcanic Activity (MIROVA) is a near real time volcanic hot-spot detection system based on the analysis of MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) data. In particular, MIROVA uses the Middle InfraRed Radiation (MIR), measured over target volcanoes, in order to detect, locate and measure the heat radiation sourced from volcanic activity.