Harrat al Birk

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  • Country
  • Volcanic Region
  • Primary Volcano Type
  • Last Known Eruption
  • 18.37°N
  • 41.63°E

  • 381 m
    1250 ft

  • 231072
  • Latitude
  • Longitude

  • Summit
    Elevation

  • Volcano
    Number

The Global Volcanism Program has no activity reports for Harrat al Birk.

The Global Volcanism Program has no Weekly Reports available for Harrat al Birk.

The Global Volcanism Program has no Bulletin Reports available for Harrat al Birk.

The Harrat al Birk volcanic field, also known as Harrat Hayil or Hubhub al Sheikh, is the only Saudi Arabian volcanic field that lies directly along the Red Sea coast. It covers an 1800 sq km area west of the town of Abha and separates the Tihamat ash Sham and Tihamat 'Asir coastal plains. Volcanic activity dates back to the Miocene and concluded with the formation of Holocene cinder cones (Brown et al., 1984). The Quaternary Harrat al Birk lava flows are of basaltic to trachybasaltic composition and contain ultramafic inclusions. Cinder cones are scattered throughout the volcanic field, and a few outlying cones lie east of the main lava field. Isolated patches of freshly eroded ash surround a vent at Jabal Ba'a, east of the main field, suggesting an eruption during the last century.

The Global Volcanism Program is not aware of any Holocene eruptions from Harrat al Birk. If this volcano has had large eruptions (VEI >= 4) prior to 10,000 years ago, information might be found on the Harrat al Birk page in the LaMEVE (Large Magnitude Explosive Volcanic Eruptions) database, a part of the Volcano Global Risk Identification and Analysis Project (VOGRIPA).

This compilation of synonyms and subsidiary features may not be comprehensive. Features are organized into four major categories: Cones, Craters, Domes, and Thermal Features. Synonyms of features appear indented below the primary name. In some cases additional feature type, elevation, or location details are provided.



Synonyms
Beni Hilal, Harra | Hayil, Harrat | Hubhub al Sheikh


Cones
Feature Name Feature Type Elevation Latitude Longitude
Ba'a, Jabal
    Ba, Jabal
Cone 18° 34' 0" N 41° 48' 0" E
Hayil, Jibal Cone 381 m
Haylah, Jabal al Cone 18° 29' 0" N 41° 47' 0" E
Qurayn, Jabal Cone 18° 4' 0" N 41° 44' 0" E
Tusi al Yamani, Jabal at Cone 18° 18' 0" N 41° 38' 0" E
Tusi ash Shami, Jabal at Cone 18° 22' 0" N 41° 34' 0" E
The Harrat al Birk volcanic field forms the dark-colored area between the Red Sea coast and the center of this NASA Space Shuttle image (with north to the upper right). This 1800 sq km Miocene and Quaternary volcanic field separates the Tihamat ash Sham and Tihamat 'Asir coastal plains. Cinder cones are scattered throughout the basaltic volcanic field, and a few outlying cones lie east of the main lava field.

NASA Space Shuttle image STS055-151-184, 1993 (http://eol.jsc.nasa.gov/).
The Harrat al Birk volcanic field extends diagonally across the center of this NASA Landsat image along the Red Sea coast. Dark-colored areas are lava fields of this 1800 sq km Miocene and Quaternary volcanic field, and yellowish areas mark pyroclastic cones and deposits. Cinder cones are scattered throughout the basaltic volcanic field, and a few outlying cones lie east of the main lava field.

NASA Landsat image, USGS, 2003.

The following references have all been used during the compilation of data for this volcano, it is not a comprehensive bibliography. Discussion of another volcano or eruption (sometimes far from the one that is the subject of the manuscript) may produce a citation that is not at all apparent from the title.

Brown G F, Schmidt D L, Huffman A C Jr, 1984. Geology of the Arabian Peninsula western shield area. U S Geol Surv, Open-File Rpt, 84:203: 1-217.

Camp V E, Roobol M J, Hooper P R, 1991. The Arabia continental alkali basalt province: Part II. Evolution of Harrats Khaybar, Ithnayn, and Kura, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. Geol Soc Amer Bull, 103: 363-391.

IAVCEI, 1973-80. Post-Miocene Volcanoes of the World. IAVCEI Data Sheets, Rome: Internatl Assoc Volc Chemistry Earth's Interior..

Neumann van Padang M, 1963. Arabia and the Indian Ocean. Catalog of Active Volcanoes of the World and Solfatara Fields, Rome: IAVCEI, 16: 1-64.

Volcano Types

Volcanic field

Tectonic Setting

Intraplate
Continental crust (> 25 km)

Rock Types

Major
Basalt / Picro-Basalt
Trachybasalt / Tephrite Basanite

Population

Within 5 km
Within 10 km
Within 30 km
Within 100 km
37,855
37,855
37,855
596,401

Affiliated Databases

Large Eruptions of Harrat al Birk Information about large Quaternary eruptions (VEI >= 4) is cataloged in the Large Magnitude Explosive Volcanic Eruptions (LaMEVE) database of the Volcano Global Risk Identification and Analysis Project (VOGRIPA).
WOVOdat WOVOdat is a database of volcanic unrest; instrumentally and visually recorded changes in seismicity, ground deformation, gas emission, and other parameters from their normal baselines. It is sponsored by the World Organization of Volcano Observatories (WOVO) and presently hosted at the Earth Observatory of Singapore.
EarthChem EarthChem develops and maintains databases, software, and services that support the preservation, discovery, access and analysis of geochemical data, and facilitate their integration with the broad array of other available earth science parameters. EarthChem is operated by a joint team of disciplinary scientists, data scientists, data managers and information technology developers who are part of the NSF-funded data facility Integrated Earth Data Applications (IEDA). IEDA is a collaborative effort of EarthChem and the Marine Geoscience Data System (MGDS).
Smithsonian Collections Search the Smithsonian's NMNH Department of Mineral Sciences collections database. Go to the "Search Rocks and Ores" tab and use the Volcano Name drop-down to find samples.