Clark

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  • Country
  • Volcanic Region
  • Primary Volcano Type
  • Last Known Eruption
  • 36.446°S
  • 177.839°E

  • -860 m
    -2821 ft

  • 241101
  • Latitude
  • Longitude

  • Summit
    Elevation

  • Volcano
    Number

Most Recent Bulletin Report: June 1992 (BGVN 17:06) Cite this Report


New submarine volcano identified; no gas bubbling

Three previously unknown submarine arc stratovolcanoes have been identified at the S end of the Kermadec Ridge: Rumble V (36.140°S, 178.195°E, summit 700 m below sea level); Tangaroa (36.318°S, 178.031°E, summit 1,350 m below sea level); and Clark (36.423°S, 177.845°E, summit 1,150 m below sea level) (figure 1). All three have basal diameters of 16-18 km and rise from the seafloor at ~2,300 m depth. The first evidence of the volcanoes was from GLORIA side-scan mapping of the southern Havre Trough-Kermadec Ridge region in 1988 (Wright, 1990). Later investigations, including a photographic and rock-dredge study during the 3-week Rapuhia cruise (early 1992), confirmed previous interpretations. Side-scan and photographic data show a complex terrain of lava flows and talus fans on the flanks of all three volcanoes, with the most pristine-looking morphology at Rumble V. During the 1992 cruise, gas bubbles were detected acoustically, rising from the crests of Rumble III, IV, and V. No gas bubbling was evident from Tangaroa or Clark. Bathymetric surveys indicated that the summits of the shallowest volcanoes, Rumble III and IV, were at ~140 and 450 m, respectively, below the sea surface.

Figure 1. Sketch map of New Zealand's North Island and the southern Kermadec Ridge area, with locations of young volcanoes. Courtesy of Ian Wright.

Reference. Wright, I.C., 1990, Bay of Plenty-Southern Havre Trough physiography, 1:400,000: New Zealand Oceanographic Institute Chart, Miscellaneous Series no. 68.

Information Contacts: I. Wright, New Zealand Oceanographic Institute, National Institute of Water and Atmospheric Research, Wellington.

The Global Volcanism Program has no Weekly Reports available for Clark.

Bulletin Reports - Index


Reports are organized chronologically and indexed below by Month/Year (Publication Volume:Number), and include a one-line summary. Click on the index link or scroll down to read the reports.

06/1992 (BGVN 17:06) New submarine volcano identified; no gas bubbling




Information is preliminary and subject to change. All times are local (unless otherwise noted)


June 1992 (BGVN 17:06) Cite this Report


New submarine volcano identified; no gas bubbling

Three previously unknown submarine arc stratovolcanoes have been identified at the S end of the Kermadec Ridge: Rumble V (36.140°S, 178.195°E, summit 700 m below sea level); Tangaroa (36.318°S, 178.031°E, summit 1,350 m below sea level); and Clark (36.423°S, 177.845°E, summit 1,150 m below sea level) (figure 1). All three have basal diameters of 16-18 km and rise from the seafloor at ~2,300 m depth. The first evidence of the volcanoes was from GLORIA side-scan mapping of the southern Havre Trough-Kermadec Ridge region in 1988 (Wright, 1990). Later investigations, including a photographic and rock-dredge study during the 3-week Rapuhia cruise (early 1992), confirmed previous interpretations. Side-scan and photographic data show a complex terrain of lava flows and talus fans on the flanks of all three volcanoes, with the most pristine-looking morphology at Rumble V. During the 1992 cruise, gas bubbles were detected acoustically, rising from the crests of Rumble III, IV, and V. No gas bubbling was evident from Tangaroa or Clark. Bathymetric surveys indicated that the summits of the shallowest volcanoes, Rumble III and IV, were at ~140 and 450 m, respectively, below the sea surface.

Figure 1. Sketch map of New Zealand's North Island and the southern Kermadec Ridge area, with locations of young volcanoes. Courtesy of Ian Wright.

Reference. Wright, I.C., 1990, Bay of Plenty-Southern Havre Trough physiography, 1:400,000: New Zealand Oceanographic Institute Chart, Miscellaneous Series no. 68.

Information Contacts: I. Wright, New Zealand Oceanographic Institute, National Institute of Water and Atmospheric Research, Wellington.

Basic Data

Volcano Number

Last Known Eruption

Elevation

Latitude
Longitude
241101

Unknown - Unrest / Holocene

-860 m / -2821 ft

36.446°S
177.839°E

Volcano Types

Submarine

Rock Types

Major
Basalt / Picro-Basalt
Dacite

Tectonic Setting

Subduction zone
Oceanic crust (< 15 km)

Population

Within 5 km
Within 10 km
Within 30 km
Within 100 km
0
0
0
0

Geological Summary

Clark submarine volcano lies near the southern end of the Southern Kermadec arc. This basaltic and dacitic stratovolcano consists of a basal substrate of massive lava flows, pillow lavas, and pillow tubes overlain by volcaniclastic sediments. Craters occupy the complex crest of the volcano. Clark is the southernmost volcano of the submarine chain that displays hydrothermal activity. Diffuse hydrothermal venting and sulfide chimneys were observed near the summit of Clark volcano during a New Zealand-American NOAA Vents Program expedition in 2006.

References

The following references have all been used during the compilation of data for this volcano, it is not a comprehensive bibliography.

de Ronde, C E J, Baker E T, Massoth G J, Lupton J E, Wright I C, Feely R A, Greene R R, 2001. Intra-oceanic subduction-related hydrothermal venting, Kermadec volcanic arc, New Zealand. Earth Planet Sci Lett, 193: 359-369.

Massoth G J, de Ronde C E J, Lupton J E, Feely R A, Baker E T, Lebon G T, Maenner S M, 2003. Chemically rich and diverse submarine hydrothermal plumes of the southern Kermadec volcanic arc (New Zealand). Geol Soc London Spec Pub, 219: 119-139.

NIWA/NOAA Vents Program, 2005. New Zealand American submarine ring of fire 2005 Kermadec arc submarine volcanoes. New Zeal Nat Inst Water Atmosph Res/NOAA Vents Program final cruise report (http://www.oceanexplorer.noaa.gov/explorations/05fire/logs/leg2_summary/media/srof05_cruisereport_final.pdf).

Wright I C, Worthington T J, Gamble J A, 2006. New multibeam mapping and geochemistry of the 30°-35° S sector, and overview, of southern Kermadec arc volcanism. J Volc Geotherm Res, 149: 263-296.

The Global Volcanism Program is not aware of any Holocene eruptions from Clark. If this volcano has had large eruptions (VEI >= 4) prior to 10,000 years ago, information might be found on the Clark page in the LaMEVE (Large Magnitude Explosive Volcanic Eruptions) database, a part of the Volcano Global Risk Identification and Analysis Project (VOGRIPA).

The Global Volcanism Program has no synonyms or subfeatures listed for Clark.

Photo Gallery


Clark submarine volcano is viewed here from the southeast looking northwest. The summit is featured, where one submersible dive took place a New Zealand-American NOAA Vents Program expedition. The approximate dive area is indicated by the white circle on the image. Depths range from 860 to 2585 meters. The resolution of the bathymetry data is 25 meters. The image is two times vertically exaggerated. The bathymetry data are courtesy of New Zealand National Institute of Water and Atmospheric Research (NIWA).

Image courtesy of New Zealand-American Submarine Ring of Fire 2005 Exploration, NOAA Vents Program.
Diffuse hydrothermal venting and sulfide chimneys were observed near the summit of Clark volcano during a New Zealand-American NOAA Vents Program expedition in 2006. Hot water (221° C, 430° F) was sampled at the base of this sulfide chimney, which is almost 6 meters high. Clark submarine volcano lies near the lower end of the Southern Kermadec arc and is the southernmost volcano of the submarine chain that displays hydrothermal activity.

Image courtesy of New Zealand-American Submarine Ring of Fire 2005 Exploration, NOAA Vents Program.

Smithsonian Sample Collections Database


A listing of samples from the Smithsonian collections will be available soon.

Affiliated Sites

Large Eruptions of Clark Information about large Quaternary eruptions (VEI >= 4) is cataloged in the Large Magnitude Explosive Volcanic Eruptions (LaMEVE) database of the Volcano Global Risk Identification and Analysis Project (VOGRIPA).
WOVOdat WOVOdat is a database of volcanic unrest; instrumentally and visually recorded changes in seismicity, ground deformation, gas emission, and other parameters from their normal baselines. It is sponsored by the World Organization of Volcano Observatories (WOVO) and presently hosted at the Earth Observatory of Singapore.
EarthChem EarthChem develops and maintains databases, software, and services that support the preservation, discovery, access and analysis of geochemical data, and facilitate their integration with the broad array of other available earth science parameters. EarthChem is operated by a joint team of disciplinary scientists, data scientists, data managers and information technology developers who are part of the NSF-funded data facility Integrated Earth Data Applications (IEDA). IEDA is a collaborative effort of EarthChem and the Marine Geoscience Data System (MGDS).
MODVOLC - HIGP MODIS Thermal Alert System Using infrared satellite Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) data, scientists at the Hawai'i Institute of Geophysics and Planetology, University of Hawai'i, developed an automated system called MODVOLC to map thermal hot-spots in near real time. For each MODIS image, the algorithm automatically scans each 1 km pixel within it to check for high-temperature hot-spots. When one is found the date, time, location, and intensity are recorded. MODIS looks at every square km of the Earth every 48 hours, once during the day and once during the night, and the presence of two MODIS sensors in space allows at least four hot-spot observations every two days. Each day updated global maps are compiled to display the locations of all hot spots detected in the previous 24 hours. There is a drop-down list with volcano names which allow users to 'zoom-in' and examine the distribution of hot-spots at a variety of spatial scales.
MIROVA Middle InfraRed Observation of Volcanic Activity (MIROVA) is a near real time volcanic hot-spot detection system based on the analysis of MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) data. In particular, MIROVA uses the Middle InfraRed Radiation (MIR), measured over target volcanoes, in order to detect, locate and measure the heat radiation sourced from volcanic activity.