St. Andrew Strait

Photo of this volcano
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  • Country
  • Volcanic Region
  • Primary Volcano Type
  • Last Known Eruption
  • 2.38°S
  • 147.35°E

  • 270 m
    886 ft

  • 250010
  • Latitude
  • Longitude

  • Summit
    Elevation

  • Volcano
    Number

The Global Volcanism Program has no activity reports for St. Andrew Strait.

The Global Volcanism Program has no Weekly Reports available for St. Andrew Strait.

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Basic Data

Volcano Number

Last Known Eruption

Elevation

Latitude
Longitude
250010

1957 CE

270 m / 886 ft

2.38°S
147.35°E

Volcano Types

Complex

Rock Types

Major
Rhyolite

Tectonic Setting

Subduction zone
Oceanic crust (< 15 km)

Population

Within 5 km
Within 10 km
Within 30 km
Within 100 km
633
678
2,870
47,539

Geological Summary

The St. Andrew Strait volcano, located in the Admiralty Islands north of Papua New Guinea, consists of a series of overlapping Quaternary cones formed by rhyolitic lava flows and pyroclastic materials on Lou and Tuluman Islands. Volcanism is aligned on a curved arc extending through the 12-km-long Lou Island, which may represent an incipient caldera ring fracture. The historically active Tuluman Islands, 1.5 km south of Lou Island, were formed during a 1953-1957 eruption. Pam Lin and Pam Mandian Islands farther to the SE along the same arc contain fresh rhyolitic obsidian similar to that found on Tuluman.

References

The following references have all been used during the compilation of data for this volcano, it is not a comprehensive bibliography.

Fisher N H, 1957. Melanesia. Catalog of Active Volcanoes of the World and Solfatara Fields, Rome: IAVCEI, 5: 1-105.

Johnson R W, Davies R A, 1972. Volcanic geology of the St. Andrew Strait Islands, Bismarck Sea, Papua New Guinea. Geol Surv Papua New Guinea, Note on Invest, 72-002: 1-29.

Katsui Y (ed), 1971. List of the World Active Volcanoes. Volc Soc Japan draft ms, (limited circulation), 160 p.

Newhall C G, Dzurisin D, 1988. Historical unrest at large calderas of the world. U S Geol Surv Bull, 1855: 1108 p, 2 vol.

Pain C F, 1981. Stratigraphy and chronology of volcanic-ash beds on Lou Island. Geol Surv Papua New Guinea Mem, 10: 221-226.

Reynolds M A, Best J G, Johnson R W, 1980. 1953-57 eruption of Tuluman volcano: rhyolitic volcanic activity in the northern Bismarck Sea. Geol Surv Papua New Guinea Mem, 7: 1-44.

Eruptive History


Summary of Holocene eruption dates and Volcanic Explosivity Indices (VEI).


Start Date Stop Date Eruption Certainty VEI Evidence Activity Area or Unit
1953 Jun 27 1957 Jan 28 Confirmed 2 Historical Observations Tuluman
1883 Mar 28 Unknown Confirmed 2 Historical Observations Tuluman
0350 (?) Unknown Confirmed   Radiocarbon (uncorrected) Lou Island (Bedal volcano)
0240 BCE ± 100 years Unknown Confirmed   Radiocarbon (uncorrected) Lou Island (Bedal volcano)

This compilation of synonyms and subsidiary features may not be comprehensive. Features are organized into four major categories: Cones, Craters, Domes, and Thermal Features. Synonyms of features appear indented below the primary name. In some cases additional feature type, elevation, or location details are provided.


Synonyms

Lou | Saint Andrew Strait

Cones

Feature Name Feature Type Elevation Latitude Longitude
Bedul Cone 213 m 2° 23' 0" S 147° 23' 0" E
Bulumorsum Cone 270 m 2° 24' 0" S 147° 19' 0" E
Kombung Cone 186 m 2° 23' 0" S 147° 21' 0" E
Monkul Cone 221 m 2° 25' 0" S 147° 19' 0" E
Pam Lin Cone 81 m 2° 30' 0" S 147° 20' 0" E
Pam Mandian Cone 65 m 2° 30' 0" S 147° 20' 0" E
Tuluman
    Tulaman
Cone 29 m 2° 26' 49" S 147° 19' 0" E

Photo Gallery


The St. Andrew Strait volcano is located in the Admiralty Islands north of Papua New Guinea. The volcanic complex consists of a series of overlapping Quaternary cones formed by rhyolitic lava flows and pyroclastic deposits on Lou and Tuluman Islands. Volcanism is aligned along a curved arc, extending through the 12-km-long Lou Island, which may represent an incipient caldera ring fracture. Tuluman Island, seen here from the SW with Lou Island 1.5 km away at the upper left, was formed during a 1953-1957 eruption.

Photo by Wally Johnson, 1964 (Australia Bureau of Mineral Resources).
Intermittent submarine explosive and effusive eruptions from multiple vents during June 1953 to January 1957 created new islands that coalesced to form present-day Tuluman Island. Activity was most vigorous Feburary-March 1955 and near the end of the eruption in January 1957, when subaerial effusive activity dominated. This March 1960 view from the SW shows dark-colored rhyolitic lava flows at the far end of the island and lighter-colored deposits from eroded pyroclastic cones.

Photo courtesy of Wally Johnson, 1960 (Australia Bureau of Mineral Resources).

Smithsonian Sample Collections Database


A listing of samples from the Smithsonian collections will be available soon.

Affiliated Sites

Large Eruptions of St. Andrew Strait Information about large Quaternary eruptions (VEI >= 4) is cataloged in the Large Magnitude Explosive Volcanic Eruptions (LaMEVE) database of the Volcano Global Risk Identification and Analysis Project (VOGRIPA).
WOVOdat WOVOdat is a database of volcanic unrest; instrumentally and visually recorded changes in seismicity, ground deformation, gas emission, and other parameters from their normal baselines. It is sponsored by the World Organization of Volcano Observatories (WOVO) and presently hosted at the Earth Observatory of Singapore.
EarthChem EarthChem develops and maintains databases, software, and services that support the preservation, discovery, access and analysis of geochemical data, and facilitate their integration with the broad array of other available earth science parameters. EarthChem is operated by a joint team of disciplinary scientists, data scientists, data managers and information technology developers who are part of the NSF-funded data facility Integrated Earth Data Applications (IEDA). IEDA is a collaborative effort of EarthChem and the Marine Geoscience Data System (MGDS).
MODVOLC - HIGP MODIS Thermal Alert System Using infrared satellite Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) data, scientists at the Hawai'i Institute of Geophysics and Planetology, University of Hawai'i, developed an automated system called MODVOLC to map thermal hot-spots in near real time. For each MODIS image, the algorithm automatically scans each 1 km pixel within it to check for high-temperature hot-spots. When one is found the date, time, location, and intensity are recorded. MODIS looks at every square km of the Earth every 48 hours, once during the day and once during the night, and the presence of two MODIS sensors in space allows at least four hot-spot observations every two days. Each day updated global maps are compiled to display the locations of all hot spots detected in the previous 24 hours. There is a drop-down list with volcano names which allow users to 'zoom-in' and examine the distribution of hot-spots at a variety of spatial scales.
MIROVA Middle InfraRed Observation of Volcanic Activity (MIROVA) is a near real time volcanic hot-spot detection system based on the analysis of MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) data. In particular, MIROVA uses the Middle InfraRed Radiation (MIR), measured over target volcanoes, in order to detect, locate and measure the heat radiation sourced from volcanic activity.