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The St. Andrew Strait volcano, located in the Admiralty Islands north of Papua New Guinea, consists of a series of overlapping Quaternary cones formed by rhyolitic lava flows and pyroclastic materials on Lou and Tuluman Islands. Volcanism is aligned on a curved arc extending through the 12-km-long Lou Island, which may represent an incipient caldera ring fracture. The historically active Tuluman Islands, 1.5 km south of Lou Island, were formed during a 1953-1957 eruption. Pam Lin and Pam Mandian Islands farther to the SE along the same arc contain fresh rhyolitic obsidian similar to that found on Tuluman.
Summary of Holocene eruption dates and Volcanic Explosivity Indices (VEI).
|Start Date||Stop Date||Eruption Certainty||VEI||Evidence||Activity Area or Unit|
|1953 Jun 27||1957 Jan 28||Confirmed||2||Historical Observations||Tuluman|
|1883 Mar 28||Unknown||Confirmed||2||Historical Observations||Tuluman|
|0350 (?)||Unknown||Confirmed||Radiocarbon (uncorrected)||Lou Island (Bedal volcano)|
|0240 BCE ± 100 years||Unknown||Confirmed||Radiocarbon (uncorrected)||Lou Island (Bedal volcano)|
This compilation of synonyms and subsidiary features may not be comprehensive. Features are organized into four major categories: Cones, Craters, Domes, and Thermal Features. Synonyms of features appear indented below the primary name. In some cases additional feature type, elevation, or location details are provided.
|Lou | Saint Andrew Strait|
|Feature Name||Feature Type||Elevation||Latitude||Longitude|
|Bedul||Cone||213 m||2° 23' 0" S||147° 23' 0" E|
|Bulumorsum||Cone||270 m||2° 24' 0" S||147° 19' 0" E|
|Kombung||Cone||186 m||2° 23' 0" S||147° 21' 0" E|
|Monkul||Cone||221 m||2° 25' 0" S||147° 19' 0" E|
|Pam Lin||Cone||81 m||2° 30' 0" S||147° 20' 0" E|
|Pam Mandian||Cone||65 m||2° 30' 0" S||147° 20' 0" E|
|Cone||29 m||2° 26' 49" S||147° 19' 0" E|
|The St. Andrew Strait volcano is located in the Admiralty Islands north of Papua New Guinea. The volcanic complex consists of a series of overlapping Quaternary cones formed by rhyolitic lava flows and pyroclastic deposits on Lou and Tuluman Islands. Volcanism is aligned along a curved arc, extending through the 12-km-long Lou Island, which may represent an incipient caldera ring fracture. Tuluman Island, seen here from the SW with Lou Island 1.5 km away at the upper left, was formed during a 1953-1957 eruption.
Photo by Wally Johnson, 1964 (Australia Bureau of Mineral Resources).
|Intermittent submarine explosive and effusive eruptions from multiple vents during June 1953 to January 1957 created new islands that coalesced to form present-day Tuluman Island. Activity was most vigorous Feburary-March 1955 and near the end of the eruption in January 1957, when subaerial effusive activity dominated. This March 1960 view from the SW shows dark-colored rhyolitic lava flows at the far end of the island and lighter-colored deposits from eroded pyroclastic cones.
Photo courtesy of Wally Johnson, 1960 (Australia Bureau of Mineral Resources).
The following references have all been used during the compilation of data for this volcano, it is not a comprehensive bibliography. Discussion of another volcano or eruption (sometimes far from the one that is the subject of the manuscript) may produce a citation that is not at all apparent from the title.
Fisher N H, 1957. Melanesia. Catalog of Active Volcanoes of the World and Solfatara Fields, Rome: IAVCEI, 5: 1-105.
Johnson R W, Davies R A, 1972. Volcanic geology of the St. Andrew Strait Islands, Bismarck Sea, Papua New Guinea. Geol Surv Papua New Guinea, Note on Invest, 72-002: 1-29.
Katsui Y (ed), 1971. List of the World Active Volcanoes. Volc Soc Japan draft ms, (limited circulation), 160 p.
Newhall C G, Dzurisin D, 1988. Historical unrest at large calderas of the world. U S Geol Surv Bull, 1855: 1108 p, 2 vol.
Pain C F, 1981. Stratigraphy and chronology of volcanic-ash beds on Lou Island. Geol Surv Papua New Guinea Mem, 10: 221-226.
Reynolds M A, Best J G, Johnson R W, 1980. 1953-57 eruption of Tuluman volcano: rhyolitic volcanic activity in the northern Bismarck Sea. Geol Surv Papua New Guinea Mem, 7: 1-44.