Bam

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  • Country
  • Volcanic Region
  • Primary Volcano Type
  • Last Known Eruption
  • 3.613°S
  • 144.818°E

  • 685 m
    2247 ft

  • 251010
  • Latitude
  • Longitude

  • Summit
    Elevation

  • Volcano
    Number

Most Recent Bulletin Report: March 1981 (SEAN 06:03) Cite this Report


Discolored water

During aerial inspections 6 and 19 March, a 1-km-long zone of orange sea discoloration was noted at the S shore of Bam Island.

Information Contacts: Acting Senior Volcanologist, RVO.

The Global Volcanism Program has no Weekly Reports available for Bam.

Bulletin Reports - Index


Reports are organized chronologically and indexed below by Month/Year (Publication Volume:Number), and include a one-line summary. Click on the index link or scroll down to read the reports.

03/1981 (SEAN 06:03) Discolored water




Information is preliminary and subject to change. All times are local (unless otherwise noted)


March 1981 (SEAN 06:03) Cite this Report


Discolored water

During aerial inspections 6 and 19 March, a 1-km-long zone of orange sea discoloration was noted at the S shore of Bam Island.

Information Contacts: Acting Senior Volcanologist, RVO.

Basic Data

Volcano Number

Last Known Eruption

Elevation

Latitude
Longitude
251010

1960 CE

685 m / 2247 ft

3.613°S
144.818°E

Volcano Types

Stratovolcano

Rock Types

Major
Andesite / Basaltic Andesite

Tectonic Setting

Subduction zone
Continental crust (> 25 km)

Population

Within 5 km
Within 10 km
Within 30 km
Within 100 km
192
192
462
103,203

Geological Summary

The small 2.4 x 1.6 km island of Bam is the summit of a mostly submerged volcano that is one of the more active in Papua New Guinea. Bam is the SE-most of the Schouten Islands, and lies off the coast of New Guinea, about 40 km NNE of the mouth of the Sepik River. A steep-walled summit crater that is 300 m wide and 180 m deep is the source of Bam's recent eruptions, which have kept the upper half of the cone sparsely vegetated. A NE-trending landslide scarp extends across the upper part of the andesitic volcano from the SW coast, and a large submarine debris-avalanche deposits lies to the south and SW. The younger summit cone partially buries the eastern side of the collapse scarp. A recent lava platform on the north flank supports the small island's only villages. Historical eruptions, recorded since 1872, have been restricted to small-to-moderate explosive activity from the summit crater.

References

The following references have all been used during the compilation of data for this volcano, it is not a comprehensive bibliography.

Binns R A, Brodie P, Fulton R, Mapham B, Park S-H, Parr J M, Pinto A, Rees C, Subandrio A, Thomas S, Wama J, Whiting R, 2002. Exploration and Mining Report 939C (Final Cruise Report, RV Franklin, FR-02/2002, “BISMARCK-2002”): Submarine Hydrothermal and Volcanic Activity in the Western Bismarck Island Arc, Papua New Guinea. CSIRO Division of Exploration and Mining, Australia.

Cooke R J S, Johnson R W, 1978. Volcanoes and volcanology in Papua New Guinea. Geol Surv Papua New Guinea Rpt, 78/2: 1-46.

Cooke R J S, Johnson R W, 1981. Bam volcano: morphology, geology, and reported eruptive history. Geol Surv Papua New Guinea Mem, 10: 13-22.

Fisher N H, 1957. Melanesia. Catalog of Active Volcanoes of the World and Solfatara Fields, Rome: IAVCEI, 5: 1-105.

Hantke G, 1959. Ubersicht uber die Vulkanische Tatigkeit 1954-1956. Bull Volc, 20: 3-36.

Johnson R W, 1987. Large-scale volcanic cone collapse: the 1888 slope failure of Ritter volcano, and other examples from Papua New Guinea. Bull Volc, 49: 669-679.

Johnson R W, Taylor G A M, Davies R A, 1972. Geology and petrology of Quaternary volcanic islands off the north coast of New Guinea. Aust Bur Min Resour Geol Geophys Rec, 1972/21: 1-127.

Lowenstein P L, 1982. Problems of volcanic hazards in Papua New Guinea. Geol Surv Papua New Guinea Rpt, 82/7: 1-62.

Silver E, Day S, Ward S, Hoffmann G, Llanes P, Driscoll N, Appelgate B, Saunders S, 2009. Volcano collapse and tsunami generation in the Bismarck Volcanic Arc, Papua New Guinea. J Volc Geotherm Res, 186: 210-222.

Eruptive History


Summary of Holocene eruption dates and Volcanic Explosivity Indices (VEI).


Start Date Stop Date Eruption Certainty VEI Evidence Activity Area or Unit
1960 Apr 28 1960 Jul 6 Confirmed 2 Historical Observations
1959 Apr 2 1959 Oct 31 Confirmed 2 Historical Observations
1958 Sep 5 1958 Sep 10 Confirmed 2 Historical Observations
1958 Mar 11 ± 10 days 1958 Apr 19 (?) Confirmed 2 Historical Observations
1957 Oct 26 1957 Oct 26 Confirmed 1 Historical Observations
1954 Aug 3 1957 Jan 2 Confirmed 2 Historical Observations
1947 Mar 13 ± 75 days Unknown Confirmed 2 Historical Observations
[ 1946 Dec 1 ± 30 days ] [ Unknown ] Discredited    
1944 Unknown Confirmed 2 Historical Observations
[ 1941 ] [ 1942 ] Discredited    
[ 1936 Jul ] [ 1939 Apr ] Uncertain    
1924 Unknown Confirmed 2 Historical Observations
[ 1920 ± 2 years ] [ Unknown ] Uncertain    
1913 Unknown Confirmed   Historical Observations
1909 Apr 19 1909 Sep 13 Confirmed 2 Historical Observations
1908 Jul 12 Unknown Confirmed 2 Historical Observations
1907 Nov Unknown Confirmed 2 Historical Observations
[ 1897 ] [ 1898 ] Uncertain    
[ 1888 ] [ Unknown ] Uncertain    
[ 1885 May 20 ] [ Unknown ] Uncertain    
[ 1884 ] [ Unknown ] Discredited    
[ 1883 Mar ] [ Unknown ] Uncertain    
1877 Nov 13 Unknown Confirmed 3 Historical Observations
1874 May 20 Unknown Confirmed 2 Historical Observations
1872 ± 4 years Unknown Confirmed 3 Historical Observations
[ 1868 ] [ Unknown ] Discredited    
[ 1700 Apr ] [ Unknown ] Discredited    
[ 1616 ] [ Unknown ] Discredited    

This compilation of synonyms and subsidiary features may not be comprehensive. Features are organized into four major categories: Cones, Craters, Domes, and Thermal Features. Synonyms of features appear indented below the primary name. In some cases additional feature type, elevation, or location details are provided.


Synonyms

Lesson Island | Biam | Biem

Photo Gallery


The small 2.4 x 1.6 km island of Bam, seen here from the south, is the summit of a mostly submerged volcano that is one of the more active in Papua New Guinea. A steep-walled summit crater that is 300-m wide and 180-m deep is the source of Bam's recent eruptions, which have kept the upper half of the cone sparsely vegetated . A younger cone (center horizon) formed inside a SE-facing landslide scarp. Historical eruptions, recorded since 1872, involved small-to-moderate explosive activity from the summit crater.

Photo by Wally Johnson, 1970 (Australia Bureau of Mineral Resources).
The small island with the irregular shoreline at the upper left is Blup Blup. This 3.5-km-wide forested island contains lava flows with well-defined flow fronts, and a weak thermal area is located on the west coast. No historical eruptions have occurred, but the volcano may have been active during the Holocene. Blup Blup is part of the Schouten Islands, along with Kadovar volcano (the small circular island to the south, above the prominent sediment plume at the lower left) and Bam volcano (right).

NASA Space Shuttle image STS106-719-49, 2000 (http://eol.jsc.nasa.gov/).

Smithsonian Sample Collections Database


A listing of samples from the Smithsonian collections will be available soon.

Affiliated Sites

Large Eruptions of Bam Information about large Quaternary eruptions (VEI >= 4) is cataloged in the Large Magnitude Explosive Volcanic Eruptions (LaMEVE) database of the Volcano Global Risk Identification and Analysis Project (VOGRIPA).
WOVOdat WOVOdat is a database of volcanic unrest; instrumentally and visually recorded changes in seismicity, ground deformation, gas emission, and other parameters from their normal baselines. It is sponsored by the World Organization of Volcano Observatories (WOVO) and presently hosted at the Earth Observatory of Singapore.
EarthChem EarthChem develops and maintains databases, software, and services that support the preservation, discovery, access and analysis of geochemical data, and facilitate their integration with the broad array of other available earth science parameters. EarthChem is operated by a joint team of disciplinary scientists, data scientists, data managers and information technology developers who are part of the NSF-funded data facility Integrated Earth Data Applications (IEDA). IEDA is a collaborative effort of EarthChem and the Marine Geoscience Data System (MGDS).
MODVOLC - HIGP MODIS Thermal Alert System Using infrared satellite Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) data, scientists at the Hawai'i Institute of Geophysics and Planetology, University of Hawai'i, developed an automated system called MODVOLC to map thermal hot-spots in near real time. For each MODIS image, the algorithm automatically scans each 1 km pixel within it to check for high-temperature hot-spots. When one is found the date, time, location, and intensity are recorded. MODIS looks at every square km of the Earth every 48 hours, once during the day and once during the night, and the presence of two MODIS sensors in space allows at least four hot-spot observations every two days. Each day updated global maps are compiled to display the locations of all hot spots detected in the previous 24 hours. There is a drop-down list with volcano names which allow users to 'zoom-in' and examine the distribution of hot-spots at a variety of spatial scales.
MIROVA Middle InfraRed Observation of Volcanic Activity (MIROVA) is a near real time volcanic hot-spot detection system based on the analysis of MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) data. In particular, MIROVA uses the Middle InfraRed Radiation (MIR), measured over target volcanoes, in order to detect, locate and measure the heat radiation sourced from volcanic activity.