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Summary of Holocene eruption dates and Volcanic Explosivity Indices (VEI).
|Start Date||Stop Date||Eruption Certainty||VEI||Evidence||Activity Area or Unit|
|[ 1959 ]||[ Unknown ]||Uncertain||Four submarine vents N of Erromango|
|1881||Unknown||Confirmed||0||Historical Observations||NE flank submarine vent|
This compilation of synonyms and subsidiary features may not be comprehensive. Features are organized into four major categories: Cones, Craters, Domes, and Thermal Features. Synonyms of features appear indented below the primary name. In some cases additional feature type, elevation, or location details are provided.
|Feature Name||Feature Type||Elevation||Latitude||Longitude|
|Nagat||Cone||774 m||18° 45' 0" S||169° 15' 0" E|
|Oulenou||Cone||421 m||18° 46' 0" S||169° 13' 0" E|
|Rantop, Mount||Cone||837 m||18° 46' 0" S||169° 14' 0" E|
|The rectangular peninsula at the top of this Space Shuttle image of Erromango Island with north approximately to the left is the Traitor's Head Peninsula. It lies north of Cook Bay, named for Captain Cook, who actually landed at Polenia Bay on the other side of the peninsula. Three Holocene volcanic cones at Traitor's Head are the youngest on the 50-km-long island. The volcanoes initially formed an offshore island that was later joined to the mainland by uplift. The only historical activity at Erromango was a submarine vent that erupted in 1881.
NASA Space Shuttle image STS68-220-4, 1994 (http://eol.jsc.nasa.gov/).
The following references have all been used during the compilation of data for this volcano, it is not a comprehensive bibliography. Discussion of another volcano or eruption (sometimes far from the one that is the subject of the manuscript) may produce a citation that is not at all apparent from the title.
Colley H, Ash R P, 1971. The geology of Erromango. New Hebrides Condominium Geol Surv Reg Rpt, 112 p.
Fisher N H, 1957. Melanesia. Catalog of Active Volcanoes of the World and Solfatara Fields, Rome: IAVCEI, 5: 1-105.
Katsui Y (ed), 1971. List of the World Active Volcanoes. Volc Soc Japan draft ms, (limited circulation), 160 p.
Marcelot G, Maury R C, Lefevre C, 1983. Mineralogy of Erromango lavas (New Hebrides): evidence of an early stage of fractionation in island arc basalts. Lithos, 16: 135-151.
New Hebrides Geological Survey, 1974. Geology of Erromango. New Hebrides Geol Surv, 1:100,000 geol map sheet 10.
|Large Eruptions of Traitor's Head||Information about large Quaternary eruptions (VEI >= 4) is cataloged in the Large Magnitude Explosive Volcanic Eruptions (LaMEVE) database of the Volcano Global Risk Identification and Analysis Project (VOGRIPA).|
|WOVOdat||WOVOdat is a database of volcanic unrest; instrumentally and visually recorded changes in seismicity, ground deformation, gas emission, and other parameters from their normal baselines. It is sponsored by the World Organization of Volcano Observatories (WOVO) and presently hosted at the Earth Observatory of Singapore.|
|EarthChem||EarthChem develops and maintains databases, software, and services that support the preservation, discovery, access and analysis of geochemical data, and facilitate their integration with the broad array of other available earth science parameters. EarthChem is operated by a joint team of disciplinary scientists, data scientists, data managers and information technology developers who are part of the NSF-funded data facility Integrated Earth Data Applications (IEDA). IEDA is a collaborative effort of EarthChem and the Marine Geoscience Data System (MGDS).|
|Smithsonian Collections||Search the Smithsonian's NMNH Department of Mineral Sciences collections database. Go to the "Search Rocks and Ores" tab and use the Volcano Name drop-down to find samples.|