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  • Country
  • Volcanic Region
  • Primary Volcano Type
  • Last Known Eruption
  • 3.248°N
  • 98.501°E

  • 2181 m
    7154 ft

  • 261070
  • Latitude
  • Longitude

  • Summit

  • Volcano

The Global Volcanism Program has no activity reports for Singkut.

The Global Volcanism Program has no Weekly Reports available for Singkut.

The Global Volcanism Program has no Bulletin Reports available for Singkut.

Basic Data

Volcano Number

Last Known Eruption



1881 CE

2181 m / 7154 ft


Volcano Types

Lava dome

Rock Types

Andesite / Basaltic Andesite

Tectonic Setting

Subduction zone
Continental crust (> 25 km)


Within 5 km
Within 10 km
Within 30 km
Within 100 km

Geological Summary

The Quaternary Singkut caldera is about 9 km in diameter, with the SW half of the rim topographically distinct. Post-caldera cones are located near the south rim, including Sibayak, Pintau, and Pratektekan. Sibayak and Pintau are twin volcanoes within a small compound caldera open to the north. The 900-m-wide Sibayak crater is partially filled on the north by Pintau. A lava flow traveled through a gap in the western crater wall from the summit lava dome of Sibayak; the active geothermal field SE of the summit has abundant solfataras and fumaroles. Area residents record legends of eruptions. Neumann van Padang (1983) cited a report by Hoekstra of ash clouds that were emitted from the volcano in 1881. The town of Berastagi is situated within the larger Singkut caldera immediately SE of the younger cones.


The following references have all been used during the compilation of data for this volcano, it is not a comprehensive bibliography.

Atmojo J P, Itoi R, Tanaka T, Fukuda M, Sudarman S, Widiyarso A, 2000. Modeling studies of Sibayak Geothermal Reservoir, northern Sumatra, Indonesia. Proceeding World Geothermal Congress 2000, Kyushu-Tohuku, Japan.

Cameron N R, Aspden J A, Bridge D M, Djunuddin A, Ghazali S A, Harahap H, Hariwidjaja S, Johari, Kartawa W, Keats W, Ngabito H, Rock N M S, Whandoyo R, 1982. Geologic map of the Medan quadrangle, Sumatra. Geol Res Devel Centre Indonesia, 1:250,000 map and 26 p text.

Daud Y, Sudarman S, Ushijima K, 2001. Sibayak Geothermal Field (Indonesia): Structure assessed from gravity and hydrological considerations. Geothermal Resources Council Transactions, v. 25, August 26-29, 2001.

Harahap B H, 2011. Magma genesis in Kabanjahe Region continental margin arc of Sumatra. Jurnal Geologi Indonesia, v. 6, no. 2, p. 105-127.

Neumann van Padang M, 1951. Indonesia. Catalog of Active Volcanoes of the World and Solfatara Fields, Rome: IAVCEI, 1: 1-271.

Neumann van Padang M, 1983. History of volcanology in the former Netherlands East Indies. Scripta Geol, 71: 1-76.

Eruptive History

Summary of Holocene eruption dates and Volcanic Explosivity Indices (VEI).

Start Date Stop Date Eruption Certainty VEI Evidence Activity Area or Unit
1881 Unknown Confirmed   Historical Observations

This compilation of synonyms and subsidiary features may not be comprehensive. Features are organized into four major categories: Cones, Craters, Domes, and Thermal Features. Synonyms of features appear indented below the primary name. In some cases additional feature type, elevation, or location details are provided.


Feature Name Feature Type Elevation Latitude Longitude
Cone 2181 m 3° 14' 52" N 98° 30' 5" E
Pratektekan Cone 1898 m 3° 14' 15" N 98° 31' 9" E
Cone 2054 m 3° 14' 27" N 98° 30' 11" E


Feature Name Feature Type Elevation Latitude Longitude
Singkut Pleistocene caldera 1350 m 3° 15' 30" N 98° 30' 51" E

Photo Gallery

Sibayak volcano in NE Sumatra and its twin volcano Mt. Pinto are constructed within a compound caldera. The slightly higher Mt. Pinto partially overtops the 900-m-wide crater of Sibayak on the north. The summit contains a lava dome and an area of hydrothermal alteration visible in this photo. An ash eruption from Sibayak was recorded in 1881, and area residents note legends of eruptions.

Photo by Tom Casadevall, 1987 (U.S. Geological Survey).
Steam rises from an area of hydrothermal alteration near the summit of Sibayak volcano. Sibayak is seen here from a village in the flat-floored caldera moat south of the summit.

Photo by Tom Casadevall, 1987 (U.S. Geological Survey).
The skyline ridge is part of the wall of a compound caldera in which Sibayak and Pinto volcanoes were constructed. The lower slope of Sibayak volcano rises at the extreme right above the caldera moat, which is occupied by villages and agricultural land.

Photo by Tom Casadevall, 1987 (U.S. Geological Survey).
Climbers tread a path near the summit of Sibayak volcano. The horizontal forested ridge in the center background, forming part of the southern caldera wall of Sibayak volcano, is viewed from an area of hydrothermally altered rock near the volcano's summit.

Photo by Tom Casadevall, 1987 (U.S. Geological Survey).
A dramatic 300-m-wide explosion crater near the summit of Sibayak volcano contains a small turquoise-colored crater lake and areas of extensive hydrothermal alteration and sulfur deposition. Steam rises above active fumaroles at several locations along the far crater wall.

Photo by Tom Casadevall, 1987 (U.S. Geological Survey).
A small crater lake near the summit of Sibayak volcano shows active fumaroles and areas of sulfur deposition. An active fumarole is visible at the upper left. The lake is popular destination for weekend climbers from villages and towns surrounding the volcano.

Photo by Tom Casadevall, 1987 (U.S. Geological Survey).
An explosion crater containing a small turquoise-colored lake and sulfur-encrusted active fumaroles cuts the summit lava dome of Sibayak volcano. The volcano is considered to be the abode of Nini Kertah Ernala ("Grandmother of the Gleaming Sulfur"), the mountain's spirit.

Photo by Tom Casadevall, 1987 (U.S. Geological Survey).
Gunung Sibayak, seen here from the south, is the southernmost of two twin volcanoes constructed within a compound caldera. Several villages occupy the flat-bottomed caldera moat. Steam rises from fumaroles on the flank of a lava dome in the summit crater.

Anonymous photo, 1990.

Smithsonian Sample Collections Database

There are no samples for Singkut in the Smithsonian's NMNH Department of Mineral Sciences Rock and Ore collection.

Affiliated Sites

Large Eruptions of Singkut Information about large Quaternary eruptions (VEI >= 4) is cataloged in the Large Magnitude Explosive Volcanic Eruptions (LaMEVE) database of the Volcano Global Risk Identification and Analysis Project (VOGRIPA).
WOVOdat WOVOdat is a database of volcanic unrest; instrumentally and visually recorded changes in seismicity, ground deformation, gas emission, and other parameters from their normal baselines. It is sponsored by the World Organization of Volcano Observatories (WOVO) and presently hosted at the Earth Observatory of Singapore.
EarthChem EarthChem develops and maintains databases, software, and services that support the preservation, discovery, access and analysis of geochemical data, and facilitate their integration with the broad array of other available earth science parameters. EarthChem is operated by a joint team of disciplinary scientists, data scientists, data managers and information technology developers who are part of the NSF-funded data facility Integrated Earth Data Applications (IEDA). IEDA is a collaborative effort of EarthChem and the Marine Geoscience Data System (MGDS).
MODVOLC - HIGP MODIS Thermal Alert System Using infrared satellite Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) data, scientists at the Hawai'i Institute of Geophysics and Planetology, University of Hawai'i, developed an automated system called MODVOLC to map thermal hot-spots in near real time. For each MODIS image, the algorithm automatically scans each 1 km pixel within it to check for high-temperature hot-spots. When one is found the date, time, location, and intensity are recorded. MODIS looks at every square km of the Earth every 48 hours, once during the day and once during the night, and the presence of two MODIS sensors in space allows at least four hot-spot observations every two days. Each day updated global maps are compiled to display the locations of all hot spots detected in the previous 24 hours. There is a drop-down list with volcano names which allow users to 'zoom-in' and examine the distribution of hot-spots at a variety of spatial scales.
MIROVA Middle InfraRed Observation of Volcanic Activity (MIROVA) is a near real time volcanic hot-spot detection system based on the analysis of MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) data. In particular, MIROVA uses the Middle InfraRed Radiation (MIR), measured over target volcanoes, in order to detect, locate and measure the heat radiation sourced from volcanic activity.