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  • Indonesia
  • Indonesia
  • Stratovolcano(es)
  • 1939 CE
  • Country
  • Volcanic Region
  • Primary Volcano Type
  • Last Known Eruption
  • 6.75°S
  • 106.7°E

  • 1699 m
    5573 ft

  • 263040
  • Latitude
  • Longitude

  • Summit

  • Volcano

The Global Volcanism Program has no activity reports for Perbakti-Gagak.

The Global Volcanism Program has no Weekly Reports available for Perbakti-Gagak.

The Global Volcanism Program has no Bulletin Reports available for Perbakti-Gagak.

Basic Data

Volcano Number

Last Known Eruption



1939 CE

1699 m / 5573 ft


Volcano Types

Lava dome(s)

Rock Types

Andesite / Basaltic Andesite

Tectonic Setting

Subduction zone
Continental crust (> 25 km)


Within 5 km
Within 10 km
Within 30 km
Within 100 km

Geological Summary

The Perbakti-Gagak volcanic complex, also known as Kiaraberes-Gagak, is a cluster of deeply eroded stratovolcanoes situated immediately SW of Salak volcano. The 1699-m-high summit ridge of Gunung Perbakti is elongated in a NW-SE direction, and Gunung Endut volcano rises to 1474 m above a saddle SW of Perbakti. Gunung Gagak lies to the NW; it is capped by pumice and obsidian, and obsidian lava flows extend to the north and NE. Quaternary rhyolitic lava domes form a NNE-trending chain at the eastern side of the complex. Two 2-km-wide depressions on the northern and southern sides of Perbakti form the headwaters of the Kaluwung Herang and Pamatutan rivers, respectively. The volcanic complex is marked by vigorous geothermal activity. Fumaroles, mud pots and hot springs are located on the south and SE flanks of Perbakti and at the Kiaraberes area, which includes the commercial geothermal field of Awibengkok. Mild phreatic eruptions took place during the Holocene into historical time from flank fumarolic fields.


The following references have all been used during the compilation of data for this volcano, it is not a comprehensive bibliography.

Bronto S, 1995. (pers. comm.).

Kaswanda O, Said H, Rahardja N, 1987. (pers. comm.).

Neumann van Padang M, 1951. Indonesia. Catalog of Active Volcanoes of the World and Solfatara Fields, Rome: IAVCEI, 1: 1-271.

Stimac J, Sugiaman F, 2000. The Awi 1-2 core research program: Part 1, Geologic overview of the Awibengkok geothermal field. Proc World Geotherm Cong 2000, Kyushu-Tohoku, Japan, May 28 - June 10, 2000, p 2221-2226.

Zaennudin A, Sutawidjadja I S, Aswin D, 1993. Geological map of Salak volcano, West Java. Volc Surv Indonesia, 1:50,000 geol map.

Eruptive History

Summary of Holocene eruption dates and Volcanic Explosivity Indices (VEI).

Start Date Stop Date Eruption Certainty VEI Evidence Activity Area or Unit
1939 Apr 6 (in or before) Unknown Confirmed 1 Historical Observations Kawah Parabakti
1938 Dec Unknown Confirmed 1 Historical Observations Kawah Parabakti
1936 Oct 26 1936 Oct 28 Confirmed 1 Historical Observations Cipanas Parabakti
1935 May 31 ± 30 days Unknown Confirmed 1 Historical Observations Kawah Cibodas
1929 Unknown Confirmed 1 Historical Observations Cibeureum West
1923 Jun Unknown Confirmed 1 Historical Observations Kawah Cibodas
6450 BCE (?) Unknown Confirmed   Radiocarbon (uncorrected) Kiaraberes

This compilation of synonyms and subsidiary features may not be comprehensive. Features are organized into four major categories: Cones, Craters, Domes, and Thermal Features. Synonyms of features appear indented below the primary name. In some cases additional feature type, elevation, or location details are provided.


Feature Name Feature Type Elevation Latitude Longitude
Endut, Gunung Stratovolcano 1474 m 6° 47' 0" S 106° 40' 0" E
Gagak, Gunung Stratovolcano 6° 46' 0" S 106° 39' 0" E
Perbakti, Gunung Stratovolcano 1699 m 6° 45' 0" S 106° 42' 0" E


Feature Name Feature Type Elevation Latitude Longitude
Kiaraberes Crater


Feature Name Feature Type Elevation Latitude Longitude
Awibengkok Thermal
Cibeureum Palasari
    Tjibeureum Palasari
Cibodas, Cipanas
    Tjibodas, Tjipanas
Cibodas, Kawah
    Tjibodas, Kawah
Cikaluwung, Cipanas
    Tjikaluwung, Tjipanas
Cikaluwungherang, Kawah Thermal
Cisekati, Cipanas
    Tjisekati, Tjipanas
Ciseupan, Cipanas
    Tjiseupan, Tjipanas
Old Crater Thermal
Parabakti, Cipanas
    Parabakti, Tjipanas
Parabakti, Kawah Thermal
Sumber Panas Thermal
Taman, Kawah Thermal
Tjikaluwungherang, Kawah [Cikaluwungherang Thermal

Photo Gallery

Kiaraberes-Gagak, seen here from the west, is part of the Perbakti-Gagak volcanic field. The eroded stratovolcano has two summits and contains numerous fumarolic areas on its flanks. Pumice and obsidian caps the volcano, and obsidian lava flows extend to the north and NE. Mild phreatic eruptions took place in historical time from flank fumarolic fields at the Perbakti-Gagak complex.

Anonymous photo, 1989.
The deeply eroded Gunung Perbakti stratovolcano (center) rises above forests to its north, flanked by Gunung Endut (left) and Gunung Salak (right) volcanoes. Gunung Perbakti and Gunung Endut are part of the Perbatkti-Gagak volcanic complex. The summit ridge of Perbakti is elongated in a NW-SE direction, and Gunung Endut volcano rises to 1474 m above a saddle SW of Perbakti. Phreatic explosions have occurred during historical time at the Perbakti-Gagak complex, which is the site of vigorous geothermal activity.

Anonymous photo, 1989.

Smithsonian Sample Collections Database

The following 1 samples associated with this volcano can be found in the Smithsonian's NMNH Department of Mineral Sciences collections. Catalog number links will open a window with more information.

Catalog Number Sample Description
NMNH 117455-5 Obsidian

Affiliated Sites

Large Eruptions of Perbakti-Gagak Information about large Quaternary eruptions (VEI >= 4) is cataloged in the Large Magnitude Explosive Volcanic Eruptions (LaMEVE) database of the Volcano Global Risk Identification and Analysis Project (VOGRIPA).
WOVOdat WOVOdat is a database of volcanic unrest; instrumentally and visually recorded changes in seismicity, ground deformation, gas emission, and other parameters from their normal baselines. It is sponsored by the World Organization of Volcano Observatories (WOVO) and presently hosted at the Earth Observatory of Singapore.
EarthChem EarthChem develops and maintains databases, software, and services that support the preservation, discovery, access and analysis of geochemical data, and facilitate their integration with the broad array of other available earth science parameters. EarthChem is operated by a joint team of disciplinary scientists, data scientists, data managers and information technology developers who are part of the NSF-funded data facility Integrated Earth Data Applications (IEDA). IEDA is a collaborative effort of EarthChem and the Marine Geoscience Data System (MGDS).
MODVOLC - HIGP MODIS Thermal Alert System Using infrared satellite Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) data, scientists at the Hawai'i Institute of Geophysics and Planetology, University of Hawai'i, developed an automated system called MODVOLC to map thermal hot-spots in near real time. For each MODIS image, the algorithm automatically scans each 1 km pixel within it to check for high-temperature hot-spots. When one is found the date, time, location, and intensity are recorded. MODIS looks at every square km of the Earth every 48 hours, once during the day and once during the night, and the presence of two MODIS sensors in space allows at least four hot-spot observations every two days. Each day updated global maps are compiled to display the locations of all hot spots detected in the previous 24 hours. There is a drop-down list with volcano names which allow users to 'zoom-in' and examine the distribution of hot-spots at a variety of spatial scales.
MIROVA Middle InfraRed Observation of Volcanic Activity (MIROVA) is a near real time volcanic hot-spot detection system based on the analysis of MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) data. In particular, MIROVA uses the Middle InfraRed Radiation (MIR), measured over target volcanoes, in order to detect, locate and measure the heat radiation sourced from volcanic activity.