Perbakti-Gagak

Photo of this volcano
  • Indonesia
  • Indonesia
  • Stratovolcano(es)
  • 1939 CE
  • Country
  • Volcanic Region
  • Primary Volcano Type
  • Last Known Eruption
  • 6.75°S
  • 106.7°E

  • 1699 m
    5573 ft

  • 263040
  • Latitude
  • Longitude

  • Summit
    Elevation

  • Volcano
    Number

The Global Volcanism Program has no activity reports for Perbakti-Gagak.

The Global Volcanism Program has no Weekly Reports available for Perbakti-Gagak.

The Global Volcanism Program has no Bulletin Reports available for Perbakti-Gagak.

Eruptive History


Summary of Holocene eruption dates and Volcanic Explosivity Indices (VEI).


Start Date Stop Date Eruption Certainty VEI Evidence Activity Area or Unit
1939 Apr 6 (in or before) Unknown Confirmed 1 Historical Observations Kawah Parabakti
1938 Dec Unknown Confirmed 1 Historical Observations Kawah Parabakti
1936 Oct 26 1936 Oct 28 Confirmed 1 Historical Observations Cipanas Parabakti
1935 May 31 ± 30 days Unknown Confirmed 1 Historical Observations Kawah Cibodas
1929 Unknown Confirmed 1 Historical Observations Cibeureum West
1923 Jun Unknown Confirmed 1 Historical Observations Kawah Cibodas
6450 BCE (?) Unknown Confirmed   Radiocarbon (uncorrected) Kiaraberes

This compilation of synonyms and subsidiary features may not be comprehensive. Features are organized into four major categories: Cones, Craters, Domes, and Thermal Features. Synonyms of features appear indented below the primary name. In some cases additional feature type, elevation, or location details are provided.

Photo Gallery


Kiaraberes-Gagak, seen here from the west, is part of the Perbakti-Gagak volcanic field. The eroded stratovolcano has two summits and contains numerous fumarolic areas on its flanks. Pumice and obsidian caps the volcano, and obsidian lava flows extend to the north and NE. Mild phreatic eruptions took place in historical time from flank fumarolic fields at the Perbakti-Gagak complex.

Anonymous photo, 1989.
See title for photo information.
The deeply eroded Gunung Perbakti stratovolcano (center) rises above forests to its north, flanked by Gunung Endut (left) and Gunung Salak (right) volcanoes. Gunung Perbakti and Gunung Endut are part of the Perbatkti-Gagak volcanic complex. The summit ridge of Perbakti is elongated in a NW-SE direction, and Gunung Endut volcano rises to 1474 m above a saddle SW of Perbakti. Phreatic explosions have occurred during historical time at the Perbakti-Gagak complex, which is the site of vigorous geothermal activity.

Anonymous photo, 1989.
See title for photo information.

Smithsonian Sample Collections Database


The following 1 samples associated with this volcano can be found in the Smithsonian's NMNH Department of Mineral Sciences collections. Catalog number links will open a window with more information.

Catalog Number Sample Description
NMNH 117455-5 Obsidian

Affiliated Sites