Guntur

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  • Country
  • Volcanic Region
  • Primary Volcano Type
  • Last Known Eruption
  • 7.143°S
  • 107.84°E

  • 2249 m
    7377 ft

  • 263130
  • Latitude
  • Longitude

  • Summit
    Elevation

  • Volcano
    Number

Most Recent Weekly Report: 28 August-3 September 2013


CVGHM reported that the number of deep and shallow volcanic earthquakes at Guntur increased during 15-21 August; seismicity declined after that period. On 30 August at 0820 seismicity again increased, characterized by continuous tremor that lasted until 1450. At 1600 CVGHM raised the Alert Level to 2 (on a scale of 1-4) and reminded residents and visitors not to approach the active crater within a 2-km radius.

Source: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG, also known as CVGHM)


Most Recent Bulletin Report: April 2003 (BGVN 28:04)


Increased seismicity since December 2002

During December 2002, the Volcanological Survey of Indonesia (VSI) reported that activity at Guntur was higher than normal. As a result, the Alert Level was raised to 2 (on a scale of 1-4). No plume was observed, but deep and shallow volcanic earthquakes were registered, as well as tectonic earthquakes, through at least mid-May 2003. Tremor was also reported occasionally (table 1). On 28 December a "white ash plume around Guntur crater and Kabuyutan crater reached 3 m high." No ashfall was reported. The temperature at Guntur crater was 79.7°C and at Kabuyutan was 92.7°C. EDM deformation measurements taken on 22 November, 14 December, and 28 December 2002 revealed 11 cm of inflation. On 13 January 2003, an earthquake (MM 2-3) was felt in surrounding areas. Elevated tremor was noted during the first week of April 2003. Guntur remained at Alert Level 2 throughout mid-May.

Table 1. Seismicity at Guntur during 1 December 2002-18 May 2003. Courtesy of VSI.

    Date              Deep volcanic    Shallow volcanic    Tectonic
                        (A-type)           (B-type)

    01 Dec-08 Dec 02       8                  8               19
    09 Dec-15 Dec 02       5                 12               23
    16 Dec-22 Dec 02       2                  6               16
    23 Dec-29 Dec 02      --                  5               14
    30 Dec-05 Jan 03       8                 24               15
    06 Jan-12 Jan 03       3                  6               12
    13 Jan-19 Jan 03       2                 11               12
    20 Jan-26 Jan 03       3                 23               20
    27 Jan-02 Feb 03       5                  5               22
    03 Feb-09 Feb 03       5                  4               11
    10 Feb-16 Feb 03       4                  5               22
    17 Feb-23 Feb 03       3                 11               17
    24 Feb-02 Mar 03       6                  4               19
    03 Mar-09 Mar 03       3                 10               30
    10 Mar-16 Mar 03       4                  5               20
    17 Mar-23 Mar 03       1                  3               28
    24 Mar-30 Mar 03       4                  4               24
    31 Mar-06 Apr 03      13                  6               23
    07 Apr-13 Apr 03       5                  2               17
    14 Apr-20 Apr 03       3                  3               22
    21 Apr-27 Apr 03       6                  3               31
    28 Apr-04 May 03       4                  2               18
    05 May-11 May 03       2                 --               24
    12 May-18 May 03       3                  1               19

Information Contacts: Dali Ahmad, Volcanological Survey of Indonesia (VSI), Jalan Diponegoro No. 57, Bandung 40122, Indonesia (Email: dali@vsi.esdm.go.id, URL: http://www.vsi.esdm.go.id/).

Index of Weekly Reports


2013: May | August
2002: December

Weekly Reports


28 August-3 September 2013

CVGHM reported that the number of deep and shallow volcanic earthquakes at Guntur increased during 15-21 August; seismicity declined after that period. On 30 August at 0820 seismicity again increased, characterized by continuous tremor that lasted until 1450. At 1600 CVGHM raised the Alert Level to 2 (on a scale of 1-4) and reminded residents and visitors not to approach the active crater within a 2-km radius.

Source: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG, also known as CVGHM)


8 May-14 May 2013

CVGHM reported that in early March a slight increase of deep and shallow volcanic-tectonic earthquakes at Guntur was recorded; volcanic tremor became continuous on 2 April, prompting CVGHM to raise the Alert Level to 2 (on a scale of 1-4).

Temperature measurements of hot springs in five different areas fluctuated until mid-April and then were relatively stable through early May. Seismicity also decreased in early May. On 7 May the Alert Level was lowered to 1.

Source: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG, also known as CVGHM)


24 December-30 December 2002

During 9-15 December higher-than-normal seismicity at Guntur led VSI to raise the Alert Level to 2 (on a scale of 1-4). Visual observations of the summit did not reveal any surface changes or ash plumes. In comparison to the previous week, the number of shallow volcanic and tectonic earthquakes increased, while deep volcanic earthquakes decreased. Seismicity remained higher than normal during 16-22 December, but fewer earthquakes occurred than during the previous week. The Alert Level remained at 2.

Source: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG, also known as CVGHM)


Index of Bulletin Reports


Reports are organized chronologically and indexed below by Month/Year (Publication Volume:Number), and include a one-line summary. Click on the index link or scroll down to read the reports.

04/2003 (BGVN 28:04) Increased seismicity since December 2002




Bulletin Reports

All information contained in these reports is preliminary and subject to change.


04/2003 (BGVN 28:04) Increased seismicity since December 2002

During December 2002, the Volcanological Survey of Indonesia (VSI) reported that activity at Guntur was higher than normal. As a result, the Alert Level was raised to 2 (on a scale of 1-4). No plume was observed, but deep and shallow volcanic earthquakes were registered, as well as tectonic earthquakes, through at least mid-May 2003. Tremor was also reported occasionally (table 1). On 28 December a "white ash plume around Guntur crater and Kabuyutan crater reached 3 m high." No ashfall was reported. The temperature at Guntur crater was 79.7°C and at Kabuyutan was 92.7°C. EDM deformation measurements taken on 22 November, 14 December, and 28 December 2002 revealed 11 cm of inflation. On 13 January 2003, an earthquake (MM 2-3) was felt in surrounding areas. Elevated tremor was noted during the first week of April 2003. Guntur remained at Alert Level 2 throughout mid-May.

Table 1. Seismicity at Guntur during 1 December 2002-18 May 2003. Courtesy of VSI.

    Date              Deep volcanic    Shallow volcanic    Tectonic
                        (A-type)           (B-type)

    01 Dec-08 Dec 02       8                  8               19
    09 Dec-15 Dec 02       5                 12               23
    16 Dec-22 Dec 02       2                  6               16
    23 Dec-29 Dec 02      --                  5               14
    30 Dec-05 Jan 03       8                 24               15
    06 Jan-12 Jan 03       3                  6               12
    13 Jan-19 Jan 03       2                 11               12
    20 Jan-26 Jan 03       3                 23               20
    27 Jan-02 Feb 03       5                  5               22
    03 Feb-09 Feb 03       5                  4               11
    10 Feb-16 Feb 03       4                  5               22
    17 Feb-23 Feb 03       3                 11               17
    24 Feb-02 Mar 03       6                  4               19
    03 Mar-09 Mar 03       3                 10               30
    10 Mar-16 Mar 03       4                  5               20
    17 Mar-23 Mar 03       1                  3               28
    24 Mar-30 Mar 03       4                  4               24
    31 Mar-06 Apr 03      13                  6               23
    07 Apr-13 Apr 03       5                  2               17
    14 Apr-20 Apr 03       3                  3               22
    21 Apr-27 Apr 03       6                  3               31
    28 Apr-04 May 03       4                  2               18
    05 May-11 May 03       2                 --               24
    12 May-18 May 03       3                  1               19

Information Contacts: Dali Ahmad, Volcanological Survey of Indonesia (VSI), Jalan Diponegoro No. 57, Bandung 40122, Indonesia (Email: dali@vsi.esdm.go.id, URL: http://www.vsi.esdm.go.id/).
Download or Cite this Report

Guntur is a complex of several overlapping stratovolcanoes about 10 km NW of the city of Garut in western Java. Young lava flows, the most recent of which was erupted in 1840, are visible on the flanks of the erosionally unmodified Gunung Guntur, which rises about 1550 m above the plain of Garut. It is one of a group of younger cones constructed to the SW of an older eroded group of volcanoes at the NE end of the complex. Guntur, whose name means "thunder," is the only historically active center, with eruptions having been recorded since the late-17th century. Although it has produced frequent explosive eruptions in the 19th century, making it one of the most active volcanoes of western Java, it has not erupted since.

Summary of Holocene eruption dates and Volcanic Explosivity Indices (VEI).

Start Date Stop Date Eruption Certainty VEI Evidence Activity Area or Unit
[ 1887 ] [ Unknown ] Uncertain    
[ 1885 Jan 18 ] [ Unknown ] Uncertain    
[ 1849 ] [ Unknown ] Discredited    
1847 Oct 16 1847 Oct 28 Confirmed 2 Historical Observations
1843 Nov 26 1843 Nov 26 Confirmed 2 Historical Observations
1843 Jan 4 1843 Jan 4 Confirmed 3 Historical Observations
1841 Nov 14 1841 Nov 14 Confirmed 2 Historical Observations
1840 May 20 1840 May 24 Confirmed 2 Historical Observations
1836 Oct 11 Unknown Confirmed 2 Historical Observations
1834 Dec 1835 Jan Confirmed 2 Historical Observations
1833 Sep 1 Unknown Confirmed 2 Historical Observations
1832 Aug 8 1832 Aug 13 Confirmed 2 Historical Observations
1832 Jan 16 Unknown Confirmed 2 Historical Observations
1829 Unknown Confirmed 2 Historical Observations
1828 May 14 1828 Jul 8 Confirmed 2 Historical Observations
1827 May 13 Unknown Confirmed 2 Historical Observations
1825 Jun 14 1825 Jun 15 Confirmed 2 Historical Observations
1818 Oct 21 1818 Oct 24 Confirmed 2 Historical Observations
1816 Sep 21 Unknown Confirmed 2 Historical Observations
1815 Aug 15 Unknown Confirmed 2 Historical Observations
1809 May 9 Unknown Confirmed 2 Historical Observations
1807 Sep 1 1807 Sep 6 Confirmed 2 Historical Observations
1803 Apr 3 1803 Apr 15 Confirmed 2 Historical Observations
1800 Unknown Confirmed   Historical Observations
1780 Unknown Confirmed 2 Historical Observations
1777 Unknown Confirmed 2 Historical Observations
1690 Unknown Confirmed 3 Historical Observations

This compilation of synonyms and subsidiary features may not be comprehensive. Features are organized into four major categories: Cones, Craters, Domes, and Thermal Features. Synonyms of features appear indented below the primary name. In some cases additional feature type, elevation, or location details are provided.


Synonyms

Goentoer

Cones

Feature Name Feature Type Elevation Latitude Longitude
Putri, Gunung Cone 1400 m

Craters

Feature Name Feature Type Elevation Latitude Longitude
Agung Crater 2179 m
Ayakan
    Ajakan
Crater
Gajah
    Gadjah
Crater 2040 m
Geulis Crater 2191 m
Japati
    Djapati
Crater 2030 m
Kabuyutan
    Kabujutan
Crater 2048 m
Masigit Crater 2249 m
Parupuyan
    Parupujan
Crater 2135 m
Picung
    Pitjung
Crater 2081 m
Sangiang Buruan Crater 2062 m
Sangiang Jarian
    Sangiang Djarian
Crater 1680 m
The flat, lighter-colored area on the left is Alun-Alun, the uppermost of four large craters on Papandayan volcano. The valley below in the center of the photo extending to the NE is the breach left by collapse of Papandayan volcano in 1772. The volcano in the distance on the left horizon is Gunung Guntur, another historically active volcano bordering the Garut Plain.

Photo by Tom Casadevall, 1986 (U.S. Geological Survey).
Guntur is a complex stratovolcano composed of older volcanic complexes on the NW, and a younger group of cones on the SE. The youngest cone, Guntur (whose name means "thunder"), seen here in the upper left center of the photo from the Volcanological Survey of Indonesia observatory on the south side of the volcano, has been the source of frequent explosive eruptions in the 19th century, but has not erupted since. The peak at the right is Gunung Picung.

Photo by Lee Siebert, 1995 (Smithsonian Institution).
The forested hills in the foreground are part of a massive, hummocky debris-avalanche deposit that originated from a prehistoric collapse of Guntur volcano, seen in the distance at the upper right.

Photo by Lee Siebert, 1995 (Smithsonian Institution).
The older, NW portion of Guntur volcano rises above a small lake at the hot spring resort of Cipanas SE of the volcano. Gunung Guntur and neighboring volcanoes surrounding the plain of Garut were some of the oldest tourist destinations in Java. Among the attractions of the Cipanas hot spring resort is Komparan ("The Oven"), a steaming mud pool that is used for cooking.

Photo by J. Matehelumual, 1986 (Volcanological Survey of Indonesia).
Gunung Guntur at the right center, the youngest cone of the Guntur volcanic complex, consists of a younger SW part with cones lying along a NW-SE trend, and an older, more eroded complex to the NW. Youthful lava flows can be seen on the lower right-hand flanks of Guntur, whose name means "thunder," a reflection of frequent eruptions in the 19th century. The complex volcanic massif is one of many volcanoes ringing the plain of Garut, one of the oldest tourist destinations in Indonesia, once known as the "Switzerland of Java."

Photo by Ruska Hadian, 1988 (Volcanological Survey of Indonesia).
Guntur volcano, is viewed here from the south near the foot of Papandayan volcano, looking across rice fields in the plain of Garut. Guntur is one of a group of volcanoes surrounding the city of Garut, a popular tourist destination in an area once known as "The Switzerland of Java." The rounded profile of Gunung Guntur, the youngest cone of the Guntur volcanic complex, appears on the right horizon.

Photo by Lee Siebert, 1995 (Smithsonian Institution).
The prominent levees of a historical lava flow (center) can be seen descending the SE flank of Guntur volcano. The rounded summit at the left is Gunung Guntur, the youngest peak of the volcanic complex. To the right are Gunung Batususun and Gunung Picung, part of the older massif.

Photo published in Taverne, 1926 "Vulkaanstudien op Java," (courtesy of Volcanological Survey of Indonesia).
Fresh-looking lava flows, some of historical age, descend the SE flank of Guntur volcano, encroaching on rectangular areas of cultivated fields. Note the prominent flow levees from the youngest lava flow, partially overriding levees of older flows.

Photo published in Taverne, 1926 "Vulkaanstudien op Java," (courtesy of Volcanological Survey of Indonesia).
The summit of Guntur volcano is seen here in an aerial view from the SW with the crater of Gunung Masigit in the foreground. The forested 250-350 m wide crater is about 100 m deep. A smaller crater (outlined by a dashed line) lies at top center below the crater rim of Gunung Agung (top). The historically active crater of Guntur lies off the photo to the right.

Photo published in Taverne, 1926 "Vulkaanstudien op Java," (courtesy of Volcanological Survey of Indonesia).

The following references have all been used during the compilation of data for this volcano, it is not a comprehensive bibliography. Discussion of another volcano or eruption (sometimes far from the one that is the subject of the manuscript) may produce a citation that is not at all apparent from the title.

IAVCEI, 1973-80. Post-Miocene Volcanoes of the World. IAVCEI Data Sheets, Rome: Internatl Assoc Volc Chemistry Earth's Interior..

Kusumadinata K, 1979. Data Dasar Gunungapi Indonesia. Bandung: Volc Surv Indonesia, 820 p.

Neumann van Padang M, 1951. Indonesia. Catalog of Active Volcanoes of the World and Solfatara Fields, Rome: IAVCEI, 1: 1-271.

Taverne N J M, 1926. Vulkanstudien op Java. Vulk Meded, 7: 1-132.

Wikartadipura S, Sumpena A D, Djuhara A, Santoso M S, Phillips, 1993. Volcanic hazard map of Guntur volcano, West Java. Volc Surv Indonesia, 1:50,000 map.

Volcano Types

Complex
Stratovolcano

Tectonic Setting

Subduction zone
Continental crust (> 25 km)

Rock Types

Major
Andesite / Basaltic Andesite
Basalt / Picro-Basalt

Population

Within 5 km
Within 10 km
Within 30 km
Within 100 km
4,652
218,012
3,412,038
24,486,191

Affiliated Databases

Large Eruptions of Guntur Information about large Quaternary eruptions (VEI >= 4) is cataloged in the Large Magnitude Explosive Volcanic Eruptions (LaMEVE) database of the Volcano Global Risk Identification and Analysis Project (VOGRIPA).
WOVOdat WOVOdat is a database of volcanic unrest; instrumentally and visually recorded changes in seismicity, ground deformation, gas emission, and other parameters from their normal baselines. It is sponsored by the World Organization of Volcano Observatories (WOVO) and presently hosted at the Earth Observatory of Singapore.
EarthChem EarthChem develops and maintains databases, software, and services that support the preservation, discovery, access and analysis of geochemical data, and facilitate their integration with the broad array of other available earth science parameters. EarthChem is operated by a joint team of disciplinary scientists, data scientists, data managers and information technology developers who are part of the NSF-funded data facility Integrated Earth Data Applications (IEDA). IEDA is a collaborative effort of EarthChem and the Marine Geoscience Data System (MGDS).
Smithsonian Collections Search the Smithsonian's NMNH Department of Mineral Sciences collections database. Go to the "Search Rocks and Ores" tab and use the Volcano Name drop-down to find samples.