Sundoro

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  • Country
  • Volcanic Region
  • Primary Volcano Type
  • Last Known Eruption
  • 7.3°S
  • 109.992°E

  • 3136 m
    10286 ft

  • 263210
  • Latitude
  • Longitude

  • Summit
    Elevation

  • Volcano
    Number

Most Recent Weekly Report: 28 March-3 April 2012 Cite this Report


CVGHM reported that seismicity at Sundoro continued to increase into January after the Alert Level was raised from 1 to 2 (on a scale of 1-4) on 5 December 2011. After the first week of January through 27 March the number of daily earthquakes significantly decreased. The Alert Level was lowered to 1 on 30 March.

Source: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG, also known as CVGHM)


Most Recent Bulletin Report: August 2013 (BGVN 38:08) Cite this Report


Fumarolic and seismic activity in late 2011 results in brief rise in alert level

The last eruption reported for Sundoro volcano occurred 29 October 1971; however, that did not stimulate a resulting Bulletin report and this is our first on this volcano. According to Indonesian Center of Volcanology and Geological Hazard Mitigation (CVGHM), visual observations of Sundoro volcano during October - 4 December 2011 indicated 'smoke' from fumaroles around the summit crater. Average fumarole temperatures of 75°C on 26 October and 95°C on 2 November 2011 were measured. On November 2, the height of the 'smoke' had passed the rim of the volcano's crater. Seismic activity, especially volcanic earthquakes (deep volcanic tremors-VA, and shallow volcanic tremors-VB), began to increase in November 2011. On 5 December 2011, the Alert status (on a scale of I to IV) for Sundoro was raised from Normal (Level I) to Alert (Level II). Seismicity remained elevated through the first week of January 2012.

Throughout the rest of January, February, and through March 2012, a significant decrease of volcanic earthquakes (both VA and VB) was noted. Thus, the Alert status was lowered to Level I on 30 March 2012.

The area of Mt. Sundoro (also known as Sindoro; close to Mt. Sumbing) on Java (see figure 1 in BGVN 33:11), was the subject of a study of people's perceptions and reactions to volcanic hazards (Lavigne and others, 2008).

Reference: Lavigne, F., De Coster, B., Juvin, N., Flohic, F., Gaillard, J-C., Texier, P., Morin, J., and Sartohadi, J., 2008, People's behaviour in the face of volcanic hazards: Perspectives from Javanese communities, Indonesia, Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research, v.172, issue 3-4, p. 273-287.

Information Contacts: Center of Volcanology and Geological Hazard Mitigation (CVGHM) (URL: http://www.vsi.esdm.go.id/).

Weekly Reports - Index


2012: March
2011: December


28 March-3 April 2012 Cite this Report


CVGHM reported that seismicity at Sundoro continued to increase into January after the Alert Level was raised from 1 to 2 (on a scale of 1-4) on 5 December 2011. After the first week of January through 27 March the number of daily earthquakes significantly decreased. The Alert Level was lowered to 1 on 30 March.

Source: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG, also known as CVGHM)


7 December-13 December 2011 Cite this Report


CVGHM reported increased seismic activity at Sundoro during October -4 December. On 26 November and 2 December smoke was reported from many fumaroles around the summit crater. Based on visual and seismic data, CVGHM raised the Alert Level from 1 to 2 (on a scale of 1-4) on 5 December.

Source: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG, also known as CVGHM)


Bulletin Reports - Index


Reports are organized chronologically and indexed below by Month/Year (Publication Volume:Number), and include a one-line summary. Click on the index link or scroll down to read the reports.

08/2013 (BGVN 38:08) Fumarolic and seismic activity in late 2011 results in brief rise in alert level




Information is preliminary and subject to change. All times are local (unless otherwise noted)


August 2013 (BGVN 38:08) Cite this Report


Fumarolic and seismic activity in late 2011 results in brief rise in alert level

The last eruption reported for Sundoro volcano occurred 29 October 1971; however, that did not stimulate a resulting Bulletin report and this is our first on this volcano. According to Indonesian Center of Volcanology and Geological Hazard Mitigation (CVGHM), visual observations of Sundoro volcano during October - 4 December 2011 indicated 'smoke' from fumaroles around the summit crater. Average fumarole temperatures of 75°C on 26 October and 95°C on 2 November 2011 were measured. On November 2, the height of the 'smoke' had passed the rim of the volcano's crater. Seismic activity, especially volcanic earthquakes (deep volcanic tremors-VA, and shallow volcanic tremors-VB), began to increase in November 2011. On 5 December 2011, the Alert status (on a scale of I to IV) for Sundoro was raised from Normal (Level I) to Alert (Level II). Seismicity remained elevated through the first week of January 2012.

Throughout the rest of January, February, and through March 2012, a significant decrease of volcanic earthquakes (both VA and VB) was noted. Thus, the Alert status was lowered to Level I on 30 March 2012.

The area of Mt. Sundoro (also known as Sindoro; close to Mt. Sumbing) on Java (see figure 1 in BGVN 33:11), was the subject of a study of people's perceptions and reactions to volcanic hazards (Lavigne and others, 2008).

Reference: Lavigne, F., De Coster, B., Juvin, N., Flohic, F., Gaillard, J-C., Texier, P., Morin, J., and Sartohadi, J., 2008, People's behaviour in the face of volcanic hazards: Perspectives from Javanese communities, Indonesia, Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research, v.172, issue 3-4, p. 273-287.

Information Contacts: Center of Volcanology and Geological Hazard Mitigation (CVGHM) (URL: http://www.vsi.esdm.go.id/).

Basic Data

Volcano Number

Last Known Eruption

Elevation

Latitude
Longitude
263210

1971 CE

3136 m / 10286 ft

7.3°S
109.992°E

Volcano Types

Stratovolcano
Pyroclastic cone(s)
Lava dome

Rock Types

Major
Andesite / Basaltic Andesite
Basalt / Picro-Basalt

Tectonic Setting

Subduction zone
Continental crust (> 25 km)

Population

Within 5 km
Within 10 km
Within 30 km
Within 100 km
52,462
496,751
2,086,299
24,996,512

Geological Summary

Gunung Sundoro, one Java's most symmetrical volcanoes, is separated by a 1400-m-high saddle from Sumbing volcano. Parasitic craters and cones, the largest of which is Kembang, occur on the NW-to-southern flanks, and all fed lava flows. A small lava dome occupies the summit crater of the 3136-m-high volcano, and numerous phreatic explosion vents were formed along radial fissure that cut the dome and extend across the crater rim. Lava flows extend in all directions from the summit crater. Deposits of a large prehistoric debris avalanche are located below the NE flank of Sundoro. Pyroclastic-flow deposits dated at 1720 years before present extend as far as 13 km from the summit. Historical eruptions typically have consisted of mild-to-moderate phreatic explosions, mostly from the summit crater. Flank vents were also active in 1882 and 1903.

References

The following references have all been used during the compilation of data for this volcano, it is not a comprehensive bibliography.

Kusumadinata K, 1979. Data Dasar Gunungapi Indonesia. Bandung: Volc Surv Indonesia, 820 p.

Neumann van Padang M, 1951. Indonesia. Catalog of Active Volcanoes of the World and Solfatara Fields, Rome: IAVCEI, 1: 1-271.

Sukhyar R, 1989. Geochemistry and petrogenesis of arc rocks from Dieng, Sundoro and Sumbing volcanic complexes, central Java, Indonesia. Unpublished PhD thesis, Monash University, 319 p.

Sukhyar R, Sumartadipura N S, Erfan R D, 1992. Geologic map of Sundoro volcano, central Java. Volc Surv Indonesia, 1:50,000 geol map.

Taverne N J M, 1926. Vulkanstudien op Java. Vulk Meded, 7: 1-132.

Eruptive History


Summary of Holocene eruption dates and Volcanic Explosivity Indices (VEI).


Start Date Stop Date Eruption Certainty VEI Evidence Activity Area or Unit
1971 Oct 29 1971 Nov 9 Confirmed 2 Historical Observations
1906 Sep 22 1906 Dec 20 Confirmed 2 Historical Observations Summit crater K5
1903 Oct 17 1903 Oct 21 (?) Confirmed 2 Historical Observations Upper NE and SW flanks (2850-2980 m)
1902 May 1 1902 May 25 Confirmed 1 Historical Observations
1887 Nov 13 1887 Nov 14 Confirmed 2 Historical Observations
1883 Aug (?) Unknown Confirmed 2 Historical Observations
1882 Apr 1 1882 Apr 7 Confirmed 2 Historical Observations Summit, NW and NE flanks
1818 Unknown Confirmed 2 Historical Observations
1806 (?) Unknown Confirmed 2 Historical Observations
0470 (?) Unknown Confirmed   Radiocarbon (uncorrected)
0230 (?) Unknown Confirmed   Radiocarbon (uncorrected)

This compilation of synonyms and subsidiary features may not be comprehensive. Features are organized into four major categories: Cones, Craters, Domes, and Thermal Features. Synonyms of features appear indented below the primary name. In some cases additional feature type, elevation, or location details are provided.


Synonyms

Soendoro | Sindoro | Sendoro

Cones

Feature Name Feature Type Elevation Latitude Longitude
Arum, Gunung Cone - Crater 2129 m
Buntuk Gede, Gunung Vent 1220 m
Kekep, Gunung Cone - Crater 1746 m
Kembang, Gunung Cone - Crater 2339 m
Pagerluhir, Gunung Vent 1317 m
Watu, Gunung Cone - Crater 1657 m

Craters

Feature Name Feature Type Elevation Latitude Longitude
Segoro Banjaran
    Segoro Bandjaran
Crater
Segoro Wedi Crater

Photo Gallery


The beautifully symmetrical Sundoro volcano, seen here from Wadas Putih village to its NW, is one of two conical 3000-m-high stratovolcanoes SE of the Dieng volcanic complex. Explosive eruptions have occurred from both summit and flank vents at Gunung Sundoro during historical time, most recently in 1971.

Photo by Ruska Hadian, 1979 (Volcanological Survey of Indonesia).
The floor of the K1 crater at the summit of Sundoro volcano contains a shallow lake. The 150-m-wide, 75-m-deep crater is the largest of the many craters cutting the summit of Sundoro. It is seen here from the rim of the next largest crater, K2, immediately to the south.

Photo by Sumarma Hamidi, 1973 (Volcanological Survey of Indonesia).
Farmers cultivate land on the eastern flank of picturesque Gunung Sundoro, one of the most symmetrical volcanoes in Java. The 3136-m-high stratovolcano towers 2500 m above its base, immediately NW of its neighboring conical volcano, Gunung Sumbing. A small lava dome occupies the summit crater, which has fed lava flows in all directions. Historical eruptions typically have consisted of mild-to-moderate phreatic explosions, mostly from the summit crater, although flank vents were also active in 1882 and 1903.

Photo by Lee Siebert, 1995 (Smithsonian Institution).
Gunung Sundoro is a prominent, symmetrical stratovolcano that rises to 3151 m immediately NE of Sumbing volcano. The foreground hill is part of the deposits of a large prehistoric debris avalanche that traveled up to 20 km prior to formation of the present-day volcano. Explosive eruptions have occurred from both summit and flank vents in historical time.

Photo by Lee Siebert, 1995 (Smithsonian Institution).
The SE flank of symmetrical Gunung Sundoro rises above fields immediately west of the broad saddle with Sumbing volcano. Sundoro has erupted in historical time from both summit and flank vents. The satellitic cone at the lower left is Gunung Kembang.

Photo by Lee Siebert, 1995 (Smithsonian Institution).
An aerial view from the SE looks across the summit crater complex of Sundoro volcano to the Dieng volcanic complex. Several historically active craters and fissure vents cut the summit of symmetrical Gunung Sundoro. The forested peak at the top center is Gunung Prahu, the largest stratovolcano of the Dieng complex; to its left in the clouds is the Dieng Plateau, the location of many maars and phreatic explosion craters.

Photo published in Taverne, 1926 "Vulkaanstudien op Java," (courtesy of Volcanological Survey of Indonesia).
An aerial view from the NW looks across the summit crater complex of Gunung Sundoro volcano to Gunung Sumbing. These imposing 3000-m-high conical stratovolcanoes form prominent landmarks between the Dieng volcanic complex and the city of Yogjakarta. Both volcanoes have erupted in historical time.

Photo published in Taverne, 1926 "Vulkaanstudien op Java," (courtesy of Volcanological Survey of Indonesia).
The two small peaks at the left are part of the Telomoyo volcanic complex, which was constructed along a NNW-SSE-trending line of volcanoes extending from Ungaran in the north to Merapi in the south. Telomoyo filled much of the southern side of a depression formed by collapse of the Pleistocene Soropati volcano and grew to a height of 600 m above its rim. The two towering conical peaks in the background are Sumbing (L) and Sundoro (R); Slamet volcano is on the far right horizon.

Photo by Hideko and Minoru Kusakabe, 2000 (Okayama University).

Smithsonian Sample Collections Database


A listing of samples from the Smithsonian collections will be available soon.

Affiliated Sites

Large Eruptions of Sundoro Information about large Quaternary eruptions (VEI >= 4) is cataloged in the Large Magnitude Explosive Volcanic Eruptions (LaMEVE) database of the Volcano Global Risk Identification and Analysis Project (VOGRIPA).
WOVOdat WOVOdat is a database of volcanic unrest; instrumentally and visually recorded changes in seismicity, ground deformation, gas emission, and other parameters from their normal baselines. It is sponsored by the World Organization of Volcano Observatories (WOVO) and presently hosted at the Earth Observatory of Singapore.
EarthChem EarthChem develops and maintains databases, software, and services that support the preservation, discovery, access and analysis of geochemical data, and facilitate their integration with the broad array of other available earth science parameters. EarthChem is operated by a joint team of disciplinary scientists, data scientists, data managers and information technology developers who are part of the NSF-funded data facility Integrated Earth Data Applications (IEDA). IEDA is a collaborative effort of EarthChem and the Marine Geoscience Data System (MGDS).
MODVOLC - HIGP MODIS Thermal Alert System Using infrared satellite Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) data, scientists at the Hawai'i Institute of Geophysics and Planetology, University of Hawai'i, developed an automated system called MODVOLC to map thermal hot-spots in near real time. For each MODIS image, the algorithm automatically scans each 1 km pixel within it to check for high-temperature hot-spots. When one is found the date, time, location, and intensity are recorded. MODIS looks at every square km of the Earth every 48 hours, once during the day and once during the night, and the presence of two MODIS sensors in space allows at least four hot-spot observations every two days. Each day updated global maps are compiled to display the locations of all hot spots detected in the previous 24 hours. There is a drop-down list with volcano names which allow users to 'zoom-in' and examine the distribution of hot-spots at a variety of spatial scales.
MIROVA Middle InfraRed Observation of Volcanic Activity (MIROVA) is a near real time volcanic hot-spot detection system based on the analysis of MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) data. In particular, MIROVA uses the Middle InfraRed Radiation (MIR), measured over target volcanoes, in order to detect, locate and measure the heat radiation sourced from volcanic activity.