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  • Indonesia
  • Indonesia
  • Stratovolcano
  • Unknown - Evidence Credible
  • Country
  • Volcanic Region
  • Primary Volcano Type
  • Last Known Eruption
  • 7.62°S
  • 112.63°E

  • 1653 m
    5422 ft

  • 263291
  • Latitude
  • Longitude

  • Summit

  • Volcano

The Global Volcanism Program has no activity reports for Penanggungan.

The Global Volcanism Program has no Weekly Reports available for Penanggungan.

The Global Volcanism Program has no Bulletin Reports available for Penanggungan.

Volcano Types

Pyroclastic cone(s)
Lava dome(s)

Tectonic Setting

Subduction zone
Continental crust (> 25 km)

Rock Types

Andesite / Basaltic Andesite
Trachyandesite / Basaltic trachy-andesite
Basalt / Picro-Basalt


Within 5 km
Within 10 km
Within 30 km
Within 100 km

Geological Summary

Gunung Penanggungan, one of Java's most revered mountains, is a small stratovolcano constructed immediately north of the Arjuno-Welirang massif. Numerous ruins of sanctuaries, monuments, and sacred bathing places dating from 977-1511 CE are found on the northern and western flanks. Lava flows from flank vents descend all sides of the 1653-m-high volcano and pyroclastic-flow deposits form an apron around it. Penanggungan was mapped as similar in age to Arjuno-Welirang and Semeru volcanoes by van Bemmelen (1937). Penanggungan was considered to be extinct for at least 1000 years. Its last eruption may have occurred about 200 CE.

Eruptive History

Summary of Holocene eruption dates and Volcanic Explosivity Indices (VEI).

Start Date Stop Date Eruption Certainty VEI Evidence Activity Area or Unit
[ 0200 (?) ] [ Unknown ] Uncertain    

This compilation of synonyms and subsidiary features may not be comprehensive. Features are organized into four major categories: Cones, Craters, Domes, and Thermal Features. Synonyms of features appear indented below the primary name. In some cases additional feature type, elevation, or location details are provided.


Feature Name Feature Type Elevation Latitude Longitude
Bekel, Gunung Dome
Kemuncup, Gunung
    Kemoentjoep, Gunung
Wangi, Gunung Dome

Photo Gallery

The massive Arjuno-Welirang volcanic complex (left) and the smaller Gunung Penanggungan volcano (right) are seen from the SE across a broad valley from the summit of Tengger caldera. A chain of small cones and craters extends across the Arjuno-Welirang complex, while the flanks of the small Penanggungan stratovolcano are drapped with massive lava flows from satellitic vents.

Photo by Lee Siebert, 1995 (Smithsonian Institution).
Gunung Penanggungan, seen here from Tengger caldera to its east, is one of Java's most revered mountains. The small stratovolcano was constructed immediately north of the Arjuno-Welirang massif, whose flanks form the ridge at the left. Lava flows from flank vents give the 1653-m-high Penanggungan volcano an irregular profile. They descend all flanks of the volcano, and pyroclastic-flow deposits form an apron around it.

Photo by Lee Siebert, 1995 (Smithsonian Institution).
Three young volcanoes in eastern Java are seen in this aerial view from the NE. The Arjuno-Welirang massif lies at the left-center, with 3339-m-high Gunung Arjuno forming the high point of the complex and light-colored Gunung Welirang to the NW (right). In the background is the Kawi-Butak massif, with 2868-m-high Gunung Butak forming the high point and Gunung Kawi to its right. The smaller conical peak of Penanggungan rises above lowlands in the foreground.

Photo by Lee Siebert, 2000 (Smithsonian Institution).


The following references have all been used during the compilation of data for this volcano, it is not a comprehensive bibliography. Discussion of another volcano or eruption (sometimes far from the one that is the subject of the manuscript) may produce a citation that is not at all apparent from the title.

Bronto S, Zaennudin A, Erfan R D, 1985. Geologic map of Arjuno-Welirang volcanoes, East Java. Volc Surv Indonesia, 1:70,000 map.

IAVCEI, 1973-80. Post-Miocene Volcanoes of the World. IAVCEI Data Sheets, Rome: Internatl Assoc Volc Chemistry Earth's Interior..

Kuenen P H, 1935. Contributions to the geology of the East Indies from the Snellius expedition, part 1, volcanoes. Leidsche Geol Meded, 7: 273-283.

van Bemmelen R W, 1937. The volcano-tectonic structure of the residency of Malang (eastern Java). Ing Ned-Indie, 4: 159-172.

Affiliated Databases

Large Eruptions of Penanggungan Information about large Quaternary eruptions (VEI >= 4) is cataloged in the Large Magnitude Explosive Volcanic Eruptions (LaMEVE) database of the Volcano Global Risk Identification and Analysis Project (VOGRIPA).
WOVOdat WOVOdat is a database of volcanic unrest; instrumentally and visually recorded changes in seismicity, ground deformation, gas emission, and other parameters from their normal baselines. It is sponsored by the World Organization of Volcano Observatories (WOVO) and presently hosted at the Earth Observatory of Singapore.
EarthChem EarthChem develops and maintains databases, software, and services that support the preservation, discovery, access and analysis of geochemical data, and facilitate their integration with the broad array of other available earth science parameters. EarthChem is operated by a joint team of disciplinary scientists, data scientists, data managers and information technology developers who are part of the NSF-funded data facility Integrated Earth Data Applications (IEDA). IEDA is a collaborative effort of EarthChem and the Marine Geoscience Data System (MGDS).
Smithsonian Collections Search the Smithsonian's NMNH Department of Mineral Sciences collections database. Go to the "Search Rocks and Ores" tab and use the Volcano Name drop-down to find samples.