Lamongan

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  • Country
  • Volcanic Region
  • Primary Volcano Type
  • Last Known Eruption
  • 7.979°S
  • 113.342°E

  • 1651 m
    5415 ft

  • 263320
  • Latitude
  • Longitude

  • Summit
    Elevation

  • Volcano
    Number

18 April-24 April 2012

CVGHM reported that, although weather conditions often prevented observations of Lamongan during 9 March-17 April, white plumes were occasionally seen rising 10-20 m above the crater rim. Seismicity decreased during this period. CVGHM lowered the Alert Level to 1 (on a scale of 1-4) on 19 April.

Source: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG, also known as CVGHM)

Index of Weekly Reports


2012: March | April
2003: September

Weekly Reports


18 April-24 April 2012

CVGHM reported that, although weather conditions often prevented observations of Lamongan during 9 March-17 April, white plumes were occasionally seen rising 10-20 m above the crater rim. Seismicity decreased during this period. CVGHM lowered the Alert Level to 1 (on a scale of 1-4) on 19 April.

Source: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG, also known as CVGHM)


7 March-13 March 2012

CVGHM reported that during 1 February-9 March diffuse white plumes rose at most 20 m above Lamongan. Seismicity increased on 23 February, then fluctuated in intensity through 7 March. Seismicity increased significantly on 8 March and tremor was recorded continuously the next day. CVGHM raised the Alert Level to 2 (on a scale of 1-4) on 9 March. Residents and tourists were prohibited from going within a 1-km-radius of the active crater.

Source: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG, also known as CVGHM)


24 September-30 September 2003

According to a report from aircraft personnel, on 24 September ash was visible rising to ~900 m above Lamongan. Ash was not visible on satellite imagery.

Source: Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC)


Index of Monthly Reports

Reports are organized chronologically and indexed below by Month/Year (Publication Volume:Number), and include a one-line summary. Click on the index link or scroll down to read the reports.

10/1985 (SEAN 10:10) Seismic swarm near site of 1924-25 and 1978 swarms

11/1985 (SEAN 10:11) Seismicity declines

02/1988 (SEAN 13:02) Increased seismicity but no temperature changes

12/2003 (BGVN 28:12) Pilot notes 24 September ash emission, but it lacks ground confirmation

01/2006 (BGVN 31:01) Above-background seismicity during 5-6 January 2005

02/2012 (BGVN 37:02) Steep increase in seismicity during February-March 2012


Contents of Monthly Reports

All information contained in these reports is preliminary and subject to change.

All times are local (= UTC + 7 hours)

10/1985 (SEAN 10:10) Seismic swarm near site of 1924-25 and 1978 swarms

"Lamongan experienced a seismic swarm with ground breakage 2-15 October. More than 3,000 earthquakes were recorded at the VSI observation post at Gunungmeja, near Klakah, W of Lamongan (figure 1). Two additional seismometers were installed in the epicentral area on 5-6 October. Ground breakage occurred in a region ~5 km W of the summit and consisting of numerous ground cracks, some with vertical offsets of 15 cm, striking ENE. No changes were noted in the temperatures or character of the many lakes in the Lamongan area, which fill maars created by prehistoric eruptions. The 1985 activity is in the same general area as two seismic swarms that occurred in 1924-25 and in 1978 but did not culminate in eruptions."

Figure 1. Map of Lamongan, after Van Bemmelen, 1949. Contour interval is 250 m. Contours on the W side of the map mark the lower E flank of Tengger Caldera. Fissures shown are from the 1924-25 earthquake swarm.

"Lamongan was quite active during the 19th century with 40 eruptions, including more than a dozen that produced lava flows. Most were from vents located on the W flank above about 400 m altitude. It is notable that the maars on the W slope of Lamongan all occur at elevations below the historic eruption vents, suggesting that the position of the groundwater table controls its eruptive style. Eruptions from above 400 m altitude form fissure vents and cinder cones that pose little threat to the local inhabitants. Activity from vents below 400 m may give rise to explosive, maar-forming eruptions. The 1985 epicentral area has a surface elevation of 200-380 m. Plans are underway to increase the level of surveillance."

Reference. Van Bemmelen, R., 1949, The geology of Indonesia, v. 1B: M. Nijhoff, The Hague.

Information Contacts: J. Matahelumual, Suparto S., and T. Casadevall, VSI.

11/1985 (SEAN 10:11) Seismicity declines

"November activity consisted of an average of one earthquake/day in the October swarm area W of the volcano. Detailed geological and monitoring efforts are now in progress by VSI to evaluate the possibility of a future eruption from the epicentral area."

Information Contacts: T. Casadevall and L. Pardyanto, VSI.

02/1988 (SEAN 13:02) Increased seismicity but no temperature changes

A brief seismic swarm centered immediately W of Lamongan cone began on 8 February at 0445. Additional seismicity was recorded through February. No changes have been noted in the temperature or behavior of the maar lakes within the epicentral region. The earthquakes occurred in virtually the same epicentral area as those from the 1978 and 1985 swarms.

Information Contacts: VSI.

12/2003 (BGVN 28:12) Pilot notes 24 September ash emission, but it lacks ground confirmation

When last discussed in 1988 (SEAN 13:02), a seismic swarm had occurred here. Except for an uncertain 1953 eruption, 20th- and 21st-century eruptions are unknown. Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory 2003/1 notified aircraft personnel that, on 24 September 2003, ash was visible to ~ 900 m over Lamongan.

In this 2003 case, no confirmations of a plume or other signs of volcanism were available from observers on the scene. Concrete confirmations can establish that the plume did indeed vent here, rather than at another volcano and that it did not result from similar-looking processes of non-volcanic origin (eg., forest fires, crop burning, lofted dust).

Information Contact: Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC), Bureau of Meteorology, Northern Territory Regional Office, PO Box 40050, Casuarina, NT 0811, Australia (URL: http://www.bom.gov.au/info/vaac/).

01/2006 (BGVN 31:01) Above-background seismicity during 5-6 January 2005

Elevated seismicity occurred at Lamongan on 5-6 January 2005. From 1200 to 0700 on 5 January, 22 events occurred with Modified Mercali Intensity (MMI) of 1. At each of three times (0331, 0447, and 0524) observers noted an event of MMI 3. During this period, instruments detected continuous tremor with an amplitude of 3 to 15 mm. On 5 January there were 282 local tectonic earthquakes and 53 volcanic A-type earthquakes. The volcano alert level was raised to 2.

On 6 January 2005, 107 volcanic A-type earthquakes were recorded. Local tectonic earthquakes over the two day period occurred 159 times, of which 10 of them were events had Modified Mercali Intensity (MMI) of 1-3.

Information Contact: Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC), Bureau of Meteorology, Northern Territory Regional Office, PO Box 40050, Casuarina, NT 0811, Australia (URL: http://www.bom.gov.au/info/vaac/).

02/2012 (BGVN 37:02) Steep increase in seismicity during February-March 2012

According to the Center of Volcanology and Geological Hazard Mitigation (CVGHM), Lamongan has not erupted since 1898. On several occasions since then, however, seismic activity has increased. Brief periods of earthquakes and earthquake swarms occurred in 1924-25, 1978, 1985, and 1988 (SEAN 10:10, 10:11, 13:02). The Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC) reported on 24 September 2003 that aircraft personnel had observed ash over the volcano to a height of about 900 m, but this was not confirmed by on-scene observers (BGVN 28:12). Our previous report noted continuous tremor and an earthquake swarm on 5-6 January 2005 (BGVN 31:01).

CVGHM reported that during 1 February-9 March 2012, diffuse white plumes rose at most 20 m above Lamongan’s crater. Seismicity increased on 23 February, then fluctuated in intensity through 7 March. Seismicity increased significantly on 8-9 March (table 1). CVGHM raised the Alert Level to 2 (on a scale of 1-4) on 9 March, and began to monitor the volcano more intensively. Residents and tourists were prohibited from going within a 1-km-radius of the active crater. No eruptions occurred during the reporting period. Increased seismic activity at Lamongan continued at least through 12 March.

Table 1. Seismicity at Lamongan during 1 January-9 March 2012. Data from CVGHM. Shallow volcanic earthquakes were not reported and categories were not defined in the reports.

Date (2012)     Deep Volcanic   Distant Tectonic   Local Tectonic
January 2 16 N/A 1-22 February 1 15 N/A 23-29 Februrary 69 7 1 1-7 March 77 6 7 8 Marcha 135 N/A N/A 9 Marchb N/A N/A 131
a On 8 March, between 0000-1200 hours only. b On 9 March, between 0000-1100 hours only. During this time, volcanic tremor was continuous.

Information Contacts: Center of Volcanology and Geological Hazard Mitigation (CVGHM), Jalan Diponegoro 57, Bandung 40122, Indonesia (URL: http://www.vsi.esdm.go.id/); Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC), Bureau of Meteorology, Northern Territory Regional Office, PO Box 40050, Casuarina, NT 0811, Australia (URL: http://www.bom.gov.au/info/vaac/).

Lamongan, a small 1631-m-high stratovolcano located between the massive Tengger and Iyang-Argapura volcanic complexes, is surrounded by numerous maars and cinder cones. The currently active cone has been constructed 650 m to the SW of Gunung Tarub, the volcano's high point. As many as 27 maars with diameters from 150 to 700 m, some containing crater lakes, surround the volcano, along with about 60 cinder cones and spatter cones. Lake-filled maars, including Ranu Pakis, Ranu Klakah, and Ranu Bedali, are located on the eastern and western flanks; dry maars are predominately located on the northern flanks. None of the Lamongan maars has erupted during historical time, although several of the youthful maars cut drainage channels from Gunung Tarub. Lamongan was very active from the time of its first historical eruption in 1799 through the end of the 19th century, producing frequent explosive eruptions and lava flows from vents on the western side of the volcano ranging from the summit to about 450 m elevation.

Summary of Holocene eruption dates and Volcanic Explosivity Indices (VEI).

Start Date Stop Date Eruption Certainty VEI Evidence Activity Area or Unit
[ 1953 Apr 4 ] [ 1953 Jun ] Uncertain 2  
1898 Feb 5 1898 Feb 15 Confirmed 2 Historical Observations SW flank 400 m (Mt. Anyar)
1896 Sep 5 1896 Sep 19 (in or after) Confirmed 2 Historical Observations
1893 Nov 18 Unknown Confirmed 2 Historical Observations
1891 Sep 25 ± 5 days 1891 Oct 5 ± 4 days Confirmed 2 Historical Observations
1890 Sep 5 ± 4 days 1891 Jan (in or after) Confirmed 2 Historical Observations
1890 Mar 23 ± 8 days 1890 May Confirmed 2 Historical Observations
1889 Sep 7 1889 Nov Confirmed 2 Historical Observations
1888 Sep 1888 Oct 6 Confirmed 2 Historical Observations
1887 Nov 1888 Feb 27 Confirmed 2 Historical Observations
1887 Jul 3 ± 1 days 1887 Jul 9 Confirmed 2 Historical Observations
1885 Mar 11 1886 Oct 15 ± 5 days Confirmed 2 Historical Observations
1884 Jan 6 1884 Jun 23 Confirmed 2 Historical Observations
1883 Apr 13 1883 May 4 ± 1 days Confirmed 2 Historical Observations
1877 Apr 24 (?) 1877 May 12 (?) Confirmed 3 Historical Observations
1874 May 20 1874 Aug 21 Confirmed 2 Historical Observations
1872 Aug 15 1872 Sep 18 Confirmed 2 Historical Observations
1870 Aug 18 1871 Feb 5 ± 1 days Confirmed 2 Historical Observations Summit and SW flank
1870 Mar 2 1870 Mar 5 Confirmed 2 Historical Observations
1869 Sep 12 Unknown Confirmed 2 Historical Observations
1869 Apr 6 1869 May 4 Confirmed 2 Historical Observations Summit and south slope
1864 Jun 9 1864 Jul Confirmed 2 Historical Observations
1861 Unknown Confirmed 2 Historical Observations
1859 Feb 27 1859 Mar Confirmed 2 Historical Observations
1856 Mar 1 1856 Jun 14 Confirmed 2 Historical Observations
1849 Jun 1849 Sep Confirmed 2 Historical Observations Summit and north flank
1847 Sep 25 Unknown Confirmed 2 Historical Observations
1847 Mar 26 1847 Jun 26 Confirmed 2 Historical Observations
1843 Aug 1844 Sep Confirmed 2 Historical Observations
1841 Jul 16 1842 Aug Confirmed 2 Historical Observations
1838 Oct 18 Unknown Confirmed 2 Historical Observations
1838 Jul 4 1838 Jul 6 Confirmed 2 Historical Observations
1830 Feb 1830 Mar Confirmed 2 Historical Observations
1829 Jan 1829 Feb Confirmed 2 Historical Observations
1826 Unknown Confirmed 2 Historical Observations
1824 Jan 1 (?) 1824 Jan 31 (?) Confirmed 2 Historical Observations
1821 Dec 15 ± 5 days 1822 Jan 5 Confirmed 2 Historical Observations
1818 Oct 8 Unknown Confirmed 2 Historical Observations
1817 Unknown Confirmed 2 Historical Observations
1808 Dec 8 Unknown Confirmed 2 Historical Observations
1806 May Unknown Confirmed 2 Historical Observations
1799 Unknown Confirmed 2 Historical Observations

This compilation of synonyms and subsidiary features may not be comprehensive. Features are organized into four major categories: Cones, Craters, Domes, and Thermal Features. Synonyms of features appear indented below the primary name. In some cases additional feature type, elevation, or location details are provided.



Synonyms
Lemongan


Cones
Feature Name Feature Type Elevation Latitude Longitude
Cupu, Gunung Cone 800 m
Geni, Gunung Cone
Tarub
    Taroeb
Stratovolcano 1669 m 7° 59' 0" S 113° 21' 0" E
Tjupu, Gunung [Gunung Cupu} Cone 800 m


Craters
Feature Name Feature Type Elevation Latitude Longitude
Bedali, Ranu Maar
Klakah, Ranu Maar
Pakis, Ranu Maar
Lamongan, a small 1631-m-high stratovolcano located between the massive Tengger and Iyang-Argapura volcanoes, rises above Lamongan Lake on its western flank. Ranu Lamongan lake fills one of 27 maars that surround the volcano; they have diameters from 150 to 700 m. Lamongan produced frequent explosive eruptions, mostly from the summit crater, during the 19th century.

Photo by Tom Casadevall, 1985 (U.S. Geological Survey).
The Gunung Anyar cinder cones were formed during an eruption in 1898 at 400 m elevation on the SW flank of Lamongan. The eruption began on February 5. Activity slowed by the 7th, but included the emission of two small lava flows, the largest of which traveled 300 m by the time it stopped on February 15.

Photo by Tom Casadevall, 1987 (U.S. Geological Survey).
Lamongan volcano as viewed from the west shows the forested summit of Gunung Tarub, forming the highest point on the volcano, on the left with a younger, sparsely vegetated cone (Gunung Lamongan) constructed to the SW. The vertical dashed line locates a volcanic spine in the summit crater, which has been the source of most historical eruptions from Lamongan.

Photo published in Taverne, 1926 "Vulkaanstudien op Java," (courtesy of Volcanological Survey of Indonesia).
This lake-filled maar on the NE flank of Lamongan is one of 27 surrounding the volcano. Most historical eruptions have originated from the summit crater of Lamongan.

Photo by Tom Casadevall, 1987(U.S. Geological Survey).
Lamongan is a small, 1651-m-high stratovolcano located between the massive Tengger and Iyang-Argapura volcanic complexes. A cluster of 27 maars, many filled by lakes, and 37 cinder cones surround the volcano. The younger, smooth-sloped cone in the right foreground was constructed to the SW of Gunung Tarub, the volcano's highest peak to the left. Lamongan was frequently active during the 19th century, producing both explosive eruptions and lava flows.

Photo by Tom Casadevall, 1985 (U.S. Geological Survey).
Lamongan is a small, 1651-m-high stratovolcano located between the massive Tengger and Iyang-Argapura volcanic complexes. A cluster of 27 maars, many filled by lakes, and 37 cinder cones surround the volcano. Lamongan, seen here from the north, was frequently active in the 19th century, producing both explosive eruptions and lava flows.

Photo by Tom Casadevall, 1987 (U.S. Geological Survey).
The sparsely vegetated slopes of Gunung Lamongan, the younger of two summit cones forming Lamongan volcano, rise above grasslands at the western flank of the volcano.

Photo by Sumarma Hamidi, 1973 (Volcanological Survey of Indonesia).
The small Lurus volcanic complex (middle right) lies along the north coast of eastern Java, below and to the right of the small cloud patches at the right-center. Lurus lies north of the Iyang-Argapura massif, the broad volcanic complex covering much of the left center of this aerial view from the NE and produced leucitic, andesitic, and trachytic rocks. The small conical volcano beyond Iyang-Argapura is Lamongan volcano, and the Tengger-Semeru massif lies along the center horizon. The triple-peaked volcano on the right horizon is Kawi-Butak.

Photo by Lee Siebert, 2000 (Smithsonian Institution)

The following references have all been used during the compilation of data for this volcano, it is not a comprehensive bibliography. Discussion of another volcano or eruption (sometimes far from the one that is the subject of the manuscript) may produce a citation that is not at all apparent from the title.

Bronto S, Situmorang T, Effendi W, 1986. Geologic map of Lamongan volcano, Lumajang, East Java. Volc Surv Indonesia, 1:50,000 geol map.

Carn S A, 1999. Application of synthetic aperture radar (SAR) imagery to volcano mapping in the humid tropics: a case study in East Java, Indonesia. Bull Volc, 61: 92-105.

Carn S A, Pyle D M, 2001. Petrology and geochemistry of the Lamongan volcanic field, east Java, Indonesia: primitive Sunda arc magmas in a extensional tectonic setting?. J Petr, 42: 1643-1683.

IAVCEI, 1973-80. Post-Miocene Volcanoes of the World. IAVCEI Data Sheets, Rome: Internatl Assoc Volc Chemistry Earth's Interior..

Katsui Y (ed), 1971. List of the World Active Volcanoes. Volc Soc Japan draft ms, (limited circulation), 160 p.

Mulyadi E, Zaennudin, Wahyudin D, Dana I N, 2000. Guide book for field excursion at Lamongan, Semeru, Bromo-Tengger volcanic complex, East Java, 13-17 July 2000. IAVCEI General Assembly, Bali 2000 Excursion Guide, 28 p.

Neumann van Padang M, 1951. Indonesia. Catalog of Active Volcanoes of the World and Solfatara Fields, Rome: IAVCEI, 1: 1-271.

Volcano Types

Stratovolcano
Maar(s)
Cinder cone(s)

Tectonic Setting

Subduction zone
Continental crust (> 25 km)

Rock Types

Major
Basalt / Picro-Basalt
Minor
Andesite / Basaltic Andesite
Trachybasalt / Tephrite Basanite
Trachyandesite / Basaltic trachy-andesite

Population

Within 5 km
Within 10 km
Within 30 km
Within 100 km
6,588
66,387
2,193,829
15,322,387

Affiliated Databases

Large Eruptions of Lamongan Information about large Quaternary eruptions (VEI >= 4) is cataloged in the Large Magnitude Explosive Volcanic Eruptions (LaMEVE) database of the Volcano Global Risk Identification and Analysis Project (VOGRIPA).
WOVOdat WOVOdat is a database of volcanic unrest; instrumentally and visually recorded changes in seismicity, ground deformation, gas emission, and other parameters from their normal baselines. It is sponsored by the World Organization of Volcano Observatories (WOVO) and presently hosted at the Earth Observatory of Singapore.
EarthChem EarthChem develops and maintains databases, software, and services that support the preservation, discovery, access and analysis of geochemical data, and facilitate their integration with the broad array of other available earth science parameters. EarthChem is operated by a joint team of disciplinary scientists, data scientists, data managers and information technology developers who are part of the NSF-funded data facility Integrated Earth Data Applications (IEDA). IEDA is a collaborative effort of EarthChem and the Marine Geoscience Data System (MGDS).
Smithsonian Collections Search the Smithsonian's NMNH Department of Mineral Sciences collections database. Go to the "Search Rocks and Ores" tab and use the Volcano Name drop-down to find samples.