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  • Indonesia
  • Indonesia
  • Caldera
  • Unknown - Evidence Credible
  • Country
  • Volcanic Region
  • Primary Volcano Type
  • Last Known Eruption
  • 8.28°S
  • 115.13°E

  • 2276 m
    7465 ft

  • 264001
  • Latitude
  • Longitude

  • Summit

  • Volcano

The Global Volcanism Program has no activity reports for Bratan.

The Global Volcanism Program has no Weekly Reports available for Bratan.

The Global Volcanism Program has no Bulletin Reports available for Bratan.

Basic Data

Volcano Number

Last Known Eruption



Unknown - Evidence Credible

2276 m / 7465 ft


Volcano Types


Rock Types

Andesite / Basaltic Andesite
Basalt / Picro-Basalt

Tectonic Setting

Subduction zone
Continental crust (> 25 km)


Within 5 km
Within 10 km
Within 30 km
Within 100 km

Geological Summary

The 11 x 6 km wide Bratan caldera (also known as Catur or Tjatur caldera or the Buyan-Bratan volcanic complex) in north-central Bali contains three caldera lakes. Several post-caldera stratovolcanoes straddle its southern rim; the largest post-caldera cone, Batukau, is 10 km to the SW. The cones are well-formed, but covered with thick soils and vegetation; they are thought to have been inactive for hundreds or thousands of years (Wheller, 1986). Tapak and Lesong cones are not covered by deposits of the youngest dacitic pumice eruptions of nearby Batur volcano, and are thus <23,000 years old. The Buyan-Bratan geothermal field within the caldera has been developed to produce electrical power, and hot springs are located in more than a dozen locations.


The following references have all been used during the compilation of data for this volcano, it is not a comprehensive bibliography.

IAVCEI, 1973-80. Post-Miocene Volcanoes of the World. IAVCEI Data Sheets, Rome: Internatl Assoc Volc Chemistry Earth's Interior..

Latter J H, 1975. The history and geography of active and dormant volcanoes. A worldwide catalogue and index of active and potentially active volcanoes, with an outline of their eruptions.. Unpublished manuscript, unpaginated.

Marinelli G, Tazieff H, 1968. L'Ignimbrite et la caldera de Batur (Bali, Indonesia). Bull Volc, 32: 89-120.

Reubi O, Nicholls I A, 2004. Variability in eruptive dynamics associated with caldera collapse: an example from two successive eruptions at Batur volcanic field, Bali, Indonesia. Bull Volc, 66: 134-148.

Sutawidjaja I S, 2000. A guide to the geological phenomena of Batura caldera, Bali, Indonesia. IAVCEI General Assembly, Bali 2000 Excursion Guide, 33 p.

Wheller G E, 1986. Petrogenesis of Batur caldera, Bali, and the geochemistry of Sunda-Banda arc basalts. Unpublished PhD thesis, Univ Tasmania, 156 p.

The Global Volcanism Program is not aware of any Holocene eruptions from Bratan. If this volcano has had large eruptions (VEI >= 4) prior to 10,000 years ago, information might be found on the Bratan page in the LaMEVE (Large Magnitude Explosive Volcanic Eruptions) database, a part of the Volcano Global Risk Identification and Analysis Project (VOGRIPA).

This compilation of synonyms and subsidiary features may not be comprehensive. Features are organized into four major categories: Cones, Craters, Domes, and Thermal Features. Synonyms of features appear indented below the primary name. In some cases additional feature type, elevation, or location details are provided.


Catur Caldera | Tjatur Caldera | Buyan-Bratan


Feature Name Feature Type Elevation Latitude Longitude
Batukau Stratovolcano 2276 m 8° 20' 0" S 115° 5' 0" E
Lesong Stratovolcano
Tapak Stratovolcano


Feature Name Feature Type Elevation Latitude Longitude
Banyudeng Hot Spring Hot Spring
Baturiti Hot Spring Hot Spring
Gerokgak Hot Spring Hot Spring
Jae Panas Hot Spring Hot Spring
Penatahan Hot Spring Hot Spring
Tukad Kladi Hot Spring Hot Spring

Photo Gallery

The summit of Agung volcano marks the highest point on the island of Bali. The broad irregular volcanic massif in the far distance is the 11 x 6 km wide Bratan caldera in north-central Bali. Batukau, the largest of several post-caldera cones overtopping the southern rim, is the sharp peak at the left. Three lakes occupy the floor of Bratan caldera. Many of the cones are quite old, but some postdate the youngest dacitic pumice eruptions of Batur volcano (<23,000 years ago).

Photo by Sumarma Hamidi, 1973 (Volcanological Survey of Indonesia).
The Bratan volcanic complex is seen here from the east on the rim of Batur caldera. The peak at the right is Pengilangan, on the NE rim of a 11 x 6 km wide caldera cutting Bratan volcano. The caldera, which contains three lakes, lies between Pengilangan and the cluster of peaks at the left-center, which are post-caldera cones constructed over the south caldera rim. The sharp peak at the far left is Batukau, which lies south of the caldera. The flat-lying slopes in the foreground are underlain by pyroclastic-flow deposits from Batur caldera.

Photo by Lee Siebert, 2000 (Smithsonian Institution).
The Bratan volcanic complex in north-central Bali is seen here from the east along the road south of Batur volcano. The Bratan complex is cut by a 11 x 6 km wide caldera whose northern floor contains three lakes. Several post-caldera stratovolcanoes, such as Batukau, Sengajang, and Pohen (left to right) lie south of the caldera or straddle its southern rim. The cones are well-formed, but covered with thick soils and vegetation; they are thought to have been inactive for hundreds or thousands of years.

Photo by Lee Siebert, 2000 (Smithsonian Institution).

Smithsonian Sample Collections Database

There are no samples for Bratan in the Smithsonian's NMNH Department of Mineral Sciences Rock and Ore collection.

Affiliated Sites

Large Eruptions of Bratan Information about large Quaternary eruptions (VEI >= 4) is cataloged in the Large Magnitude Explosive Volcanic Eruptions (LaMEVE) database of the Volcano Global Risk Identification and Analysis Project (VOGRIPA).
WOVOdat WOVOdat is a database of volcanic unrest; instrumentally and visually recorded changes in seismicity, ground deformation, gas emission, and other parameters from their normal baselines. It is sponsored by the World Organization of Volcano Observatories (WOVO) and presently hosted at the Earth Observatory of Singapore.
EarthChem EarthChem develops and maintains databases, software, and services that support the preservation, discovery, access and analysis of geochemical data, and facilitate their integration with the broad array of other available earth science parameters. EarthChem is operated by a joint team of disciplinary scientists, data scientists, data managers and information technology developers who are part of the NSF-funded data facility Integrated Earth Data Applications (IEDA). IEDA is a collaborative effort of EarthChem and the Marine Geoscience Data System (MGDS).
MODVOLC - HIGP MODIS Thermal Alert System Using infrared satellite Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) data, scientists at the Hawai'i Institute of Geophysics and Planetology, University of Hawai'i, developed an automated system called MODVOLC to map thermal hot-spots in near real time. For each MODIS image, the algorithm automatically scans each 1 km pixel within it to check for high-temperature hot-spots. When one is found the date, time, location, and intensity are recorded. MODIS looks at every square km of the Earth every 48 hours, once during the day and once during the night, and the presence of two MODIS sensors in space allows at least four hot-spot observations every two days. Each day updated global maps are compiled to display the locations of all hot spots detected in the previous 24 hours. There is a drop-down list with volcano names which allow users to 'zoom-in' and examine the distribution of hot-spots at a variety of spatial scales.
MIROVA Middle InfraRed Observation of Volcanic Activity (MIROVA) is a near real time volcanic hot-spot detection system based on the analysis of MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) data. In particular, MIROVA uses the Middle InfraRed Radiation (MIR), measured over target volcanoes, in order to detect, locate and measure the heat radiation sourced from volcanic activity.